Cosmology Article Links
Religious Big Bang
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Big Bang "Science"
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
Electric Lights of Saturn
EU Discharges & Scars
Gamma Ray Bursters
Local Group Galaxies
Magnetar Dream World
The Ornament Nebula
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Nature of Ring Nebula
Seeing Red Review
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus
Optical image from Magellan and Hubble Space Telescope shows
galaxies of the “Bullet Cluster” 1E0657-56 in orange and white.
X-ray image from Chandra shows x-ray emission in pink.
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch, et al.;
Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe, et al.
Bullet Cluster Shoots Down Big Bang
Optical and x-ray images of the galaxy cluster
named 1E0657-56 have provided direct proof that these clumps
of disturbed galaxies are small, faint, and nearby. These
and many similar observations directly contradict the
foundational assumptions of the Big Bang, which place the
objects far away.
What we have stated in the headline and abstract above is,
of course, an interpretation, not a fact. But the
distinction between interpretation and fact has become so
muddled in the sciences that we felt obliged to underscore
the point rhetorically. Unbending theoretical assumptions
have wrought havoc on popular astronomy, which could not
recognize our interpretation of the Bullet Cluster based on
the known electrical behavior of plasma.
According to the authors of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory
website, the galactic cluster imaged above "was formed
after the collision of two large clusters of galaxies, the
most energetic event known in the universe since the Big
Bang." Though the announcement by the Chandra team never
uses the words "theory," "hypothesis," or "interpretation,"
its every sentence rests on a jumble of assumptions, from
supposed galactic "collisions" to wildly conjectural
"gravitational lensing," all wrapped around the discredited
notion that redshift is a reliable measure of velocity and
distance. The capper is the announcement appearing in
numerous scientific media that the image "proves
the existence of dark matter."
In electrical terms, the Hubble optical image shows the many
distorted galaxies and filaments of plasma that have been
identified by the astronomer Halton Arp as the fragments of
a quasar (QSO, or quasi-stellar object) after it has moved
through an evolving, highly redshifted and unstable "BL Lac"
phase. The BL Lac transition breaks up the increasingly
massive plasma of the quasar as it
progresses toward becoming a companion galaxy.
From an electrical vantage point, the Chandra x-ray image
(pink) clearly shows the bell-shaped terminus and following
arc of a plasma discharge “jet.”
. The strong magnetic field of the current causes electrons
to emit the x-ray synchrotron (non-thermal) radiation
captured in the image. Synchrotron radiation is a normal
electrical discharge effect.
But popular astronomy, oblivious to electrical phenomena,
sees only "hot gases colliding."
The cluster has a redshift of z=0.3, exactly the value of
quantization peak that is typical of BL Lac objects.
Because it therefore does not need to be normalized to the
base redshift of another galactic group, it is likely a
member of our
Local Group. This is confirmed by its location in the
ejection cone of M31 (Andromeda Galaxy), which includes M33,
3C120, many QSOs, and hydrogen plasma cells strung between
M31 and the Milky Way. Because of its proximity to the Milky
Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud, its precursor QSO was
probably ejected from one or the other. Statistically, as
Halton Arp has pointed out again and again, galaxy
clusters occur preferentially near large, low-redshift
The filaments, arcs, and clumps of higher-redshift plasma
that group around many of the galaxies in the cluster
indicate regions of secondary plasma pinching and ejection.
Further examination is expected to reveal the typical
pattern of decreasing redshift and increasing luminosity
with increasing distance from the secondary concentrations.
The Big Bang, which fails to take the
electrical properties of plasma into account, assumes
that redshift must be an indicator of distance. As a result,
it projects the high-redshift filaments and arcs far into
the background. In order to account for the association of
these features with foreground galaxies, gravitational
lensing must be invoked to “explain away” the number of
features as multiple images of only one “distant” QSO. But
even this subterfuge is in vain: The number of the allegedly
distant objects should, on the astronomers' assumptions,
increase with faintness, but observed numbers actually
lensing" requires enormous amounts of mass. But among
galaxies whose distances have been ascertained by methods
other than the redshift assumption, “grand design” spirals
and ellipticals are the most massive. Distorted and peculiar
galaxies, which make up the bulk of clusters like 1E0657-56,
are dwarf low-mass objects. Big Bang theorists simply ignore
the evidence of the images, calculate the mass required to
produce the desired amount of lensing, and announce that it
exists as “dark matter” that can’t be seen.