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Site Sections, Suggested Reading Sequence, and Article Synopses List

Cosmology Article Links
   Cosmology - General

Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Impossible Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
EU Discharges & Scars
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Solar Capture
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus

Credit: B. Balick (U. Washington) et al., WFPC2, HST, NASA

On the Wings of a Butterfly

In the electric universe cosmology, explosions, dying stars, and collisions are replaced by plasma phenomena for the production of such beautiful and intricate structures.

The following description of the Butterfly Nebula appears on the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) for Feb. 1, 2004:.

"Are stars better appreciated for their art after they die? Actually, stars usually create their most artistic displays as they die. In the case of low-mass stars like our Sun and M2-9 pictured above, the stars transform themselves from normal stars to white dwarfs by casting off their outer gaseous envelopes. The expended gas frequently forms an impressive display called a planetary nebula that fades gradually over thousand of years...Much remains unknown about the physical processes that cause planetary nebulae."

See M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula

"Much remains unknown about the physical processes that cause planetary nebulae?" Yes, indeed! The theory that this star is dead or dying is nonsense from a cosmology that should be dead or dying. The electric universe or plasma cosmology explanation is different. This nebular formation seen here, one of the most beautiful and distinctive, seems to be a variation on the ubiquitous "hourglass" or "butterfly" shaped glow-discharge structure observed in other nebulas.  Sometimes this funnel-shaped formation is seen as a ring or offset oval rings when viewed "up the barrel" of the axis.

It is not in space alone that we observe the unique components of plasma discharge discussed here. The same formations can be seen in the laboratory, though most astronomers remain unaware that electrified plasma generates these observed forms.

The "hourglass" discharge configuration, which may have nested hourglasses as viewed here, is forcing a reconsideration of the physics of nebular formation. According to Raghavendra Sahai, an astronomer at JPL in Pasadena, California, "What we thought we understood of planetary nebulae we no longer do. Something different and dramatic is going on."

As to the dramatic shape and structure, especially the nested hourglass; this should all be a deal-killer for explosion-type theories, Sahai states, "It is very hard to see how you get it." But the embedding of similar configurations is not a surprise to experts on plasma discharge.

See also The Bug Nebula

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