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Cosmology Articles

   Cosmology - General
Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
Velikovsky's Defense
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Gravity Probes & Error Probes
Impossible Cosmology
Star Sqashes Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
EU Discharges & Scars
Electric Sun Skeptics
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Europa Prediction
Solar Capture
Hubble Release Challenged
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus

Dark Energy and Dark Imbecility
by Sorin Cosofret

Apparently, the title of this newsletter is about astronomy, but in fact it browses quite all the field of exact sciences starting with general chemistry, physical chemistry, relativity, quantum theory, nuclear chemistry and physics, spectroscopy, classical electromagnetism, kinetic molecular theory, astronomy, etc.

I suppose that chemists and common laymen are going to appreciate the real value of this newsletter and laugh of the imbecilities promoted by mainstream physics.

Tons of pro and contra "scientific” papers arguing about the twin paradox promoted by STR have already been written after the advent of this theory.

The situation is going to change dramatically because the first section presents a simple astronomical exemplification, i.e. the supernovae, which has to be the strongest evidence against STR.

The STR predicts that further away a supernova explodes, the duration of this event, seen by an Earth observer has to be much longer than the time of same event taking place in our cosmic vicinity.

Of course in case of astronomy, recession speeds greater than light speed are possible because astronomers came up with another imbecility: space between galaxies can expand faster than light so present theoreticians seems to not see any problem for the SRT.

With the advance in technology and launch of the latest generation of satellites, there is going to be a new problem for them though! There are already very high red shift galaxies found with HST but the new JWST satellite is going to push the limit even further. HST already detected some galaxies which appears to have superluminal recessional speeds. JWST should have a real success in detecting galaxies which are very close to the light speed limit of recessions i.e. speeds of about 0,99c or 0,999c and superluminal speeds.

Postulate: If faster than light receding astronomical objects exists, a new branch of physics has to be invented.

For any common sense mind a signal from a far away galaxy is never going to arrive to Earth if space between us and the considered galaxy is receding with a greater then light speed. But for an army of theoreticians, paid from public money to invent and endless chain of imbecilities, a trick was found in order to bypass this situation too and in the end, there seems to be no problem at all to receive light from galaxies moving away with speeds greater than light speed.

Well, if astronomers already observed superluminal recessional galaxies, they have to invent a new way to measure the observed time of a supernova in such galaxy.

According to the STR as the recessional speed of galaxy is closer and closer to the light speed, the observed time for such supernova expands exponentially and an instrument on Earth should observe a supernova which lasts for centuries or millennia; it is possible to get also endless supernovae when recessional speed of host galaxy is very very close to the light speed.

Yet, in case of galaxies receding from us with superluminal speeds the formula used for measuring the "time dilation” does not work because it is not possible to obtain square root from a negative number.

The main idea to take home is the following: SRT has no prediction for the observed time of a supernova in a galaxy having  superluminal recessional velocities. But there is still place for inventing other imbecilities in the field and of course there are top institutions which are keen to further prize these imbecilities.

Of course the 2011 nobel prize has to be taken into discussion and even a layman can now understand the "scientific” value of this topic...

As far SRT combined with Hubble law come with a direct correlation between the apparent time of a supernova and the distance up to the event, the topic should have been a simple home work for a student.

Instead of taking ad litteram the simplest way to solve the problem astronomers preferred to take another approach, which appears bizarre and in a layman words would simply be categorized as …. cooking up the books!

A detailed analysis is made and there is no wonder that "cooking the raw data” brought the physics of latest decades on the verge of collapse and phantasmagorical searches.

The search for dark energy is nothing more than a futile endeavour of an immature generation of scientists who are spending public or private money for their vanity and stupidity.

There are even other special consequences for astronomy if SRT and Hubble law are accepted.

Postulate: If special theory of relativity (STR) and/or expansion of universe are accepted as true, the variation of an astronomical source intensity as 1/r 2 has to be discarded.

There is a simple exemplification of this postulate for supernovae and present theoreticians have a homework: to choose which absurdity is worth being ruled out first...

The invented dark energy is not enough to explain the expected dimming of far away supernovae foreseen by this postulate.

Going further, few people would ever think that a simple star explosion can discard quite all the edifice of classical classical and modern physics; being short of time, only an exemplification for classical electromagnetism and kinetic molecular theory is made.

Any star explosion supposes an acceleration of the stellar matter and as far this matter is ionised at the moment of the explosion, any star explosion imply an acceleration of electric charges.

There is a very simple question to be answered: Which part or which layers of the initial star are supporting the longest acceleration during star collapse?

Assuming a onion like structure for a star before explosion, it is common sense to accept that layers closer to the centre of the star are going to have a small displacement when the neutron stars forms. Outside layers are going to have the greatest displacement,

Longer the acceleration was acting, more electromagnetic radiation has to be emitted by the charged particles.

In conclusion, the most outer layer of the initial star is going to have the longest acceleration during star collapse and correspondingly the most amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted. When a star explodes, an observer should see a transition of the star luminosity maximum from visible toward higher photons energies in UV, X-ray and even gamma ray.

Once the neutron star get formed, and the rest of the star material bounces of it, the phenomena get quite "reversed”. The inner layers of star cannot get high acceleration because they are staying under outer layers …

Again the matter of the most outer layers after bouncing on neutron star are most accelerated and they should emit the most amount of energy.

The fact, that an observer sees the most energy coming from a supernova explosion in visible light and the maximum of this emission does not move toward higher domains (UV, X-ray), means that either classical electromagnetisms or the explosion star mechanism is wrong. For the new proposed theory both are absurd and have to be discarded!

The kinetic molecular theory on the other hand assumes that temperature is a expression of the kinetic motion of the matter constituents. The observational data from a supernova explosion contradicts the basic assumption of kinetic molecular theory, too.

The case of SN 1987A is analysed and it is found that matter from stellar photosphere initially at more than 20000 K, and being further accelerated by explosion, have to further increase its temperature. The observations showed the contrary; the temperature of the photosphere in supernovae is about 5000 K, because in any telescope measurements the maximum emission for supernovae is in visible part of the spectrum.

If KMT is true, the maximum emissions for a supernova have to move toward higher energies, i.e. UV and X-ray. It is a homework for theoreticians to decide which has to be ruled out first: KMT or the actual explanation for supernovae.

Of course there is a "gas expansion” but this comes later after the material bounces off the "core” and this aspect is not discussed here.

The proposed theory rules out both theories and proposes another approach in order to explain the observed facts.

Postulate: The acceleration of a material body in a gravitational field is dependent on its state of aggregation.

Corollary: Gases and plasma cannot be accelerated by gravitational fields.

Corollary: Gravitational bounce of a gas (plasma) on a solid surface has little or no macroscopic effects.

The section 3 is dedicated to a forgotten topic: heavy elements production in stars and a new postulate is formulated.

Postulate: Common stars (like our Sun), in a certain period of their life, generates quite all the known elements of the periodic table by nucleosynthesis.

Astronomer Paul W. Merrill in 1952 detected the spectral signature of technetium (specifically wavelengths of 403.1 nm, 423.8 nm, 426.2 nm, and 429.7 nm) in the light of some red giants stars. Many other elements were previously detected but this case is special: there are not known stable isotopes for this element. A half-life of few million years is too short to allow the metal to be a left-over material from something which existed before the star's formation.

This was the first direct experimental evidence that heavier elements are the product of nucleosynthesis in stars. It is a pity that such fundamental discovery has become a footnote of history when in fact such topic should have received at least a Nobel prize.

Of course further is analysed how the technetium problem and the heavy elements production in stars fits into the present promoted imbecility of big bang theory!

Section 4 makes an introduction for a future discussion about physical and chemical phenomena taking place in stars. This discussion is about electrons and electron shells. Nuclear reactions are something to complicate to be understood by living theoreticians, so a bit of warm up is necessary for later discussions.

This section brings in front of the reader an absurdity unseen by millions of theoreticians who have been working in the field of astronomy for centuries.

A star is considered a ball of ionized plasma but, on the other hand, in the remnant of a supernova one can find mostly common neutralized matter. When this process of recombination occurs and how an entire army of theoreticians omitted to take into account both the energetics of this process and the effects of a recombination for the electric charges?

A detailed analysis of these processes is made and observations are astonishing...

Although there is enough energy to have a plentiful spectra in UV and X-ray coming only from the recombination of electric charges, in most supernova there is no such abundant spectra in UV or X-ray during the initial stage of star explosion!

The total energy released at the iron recombination is about 34619 eV.; the observed spectra for a supernova in visible and infrared can be explain by taking out only a few decades of eV from the amount of 34619 eV.

From the perspective of the new proposed theory, there exist no valid answer when the recombination of the electric charges takes place, because this process do not take place at all. Most of the matter blasted out by the star explosion is already in neutral state and the present accepted stellar model cannot allow this to happen.

In fact how many elements heavier then iron were ever been observed into a supernova? The big bang theory preaches everywhere that heavier then iron elements are formed during supernova explosion, but have you ever found a discussion about a ton of lead produced into a supernova! These aspects are going to be discussed in the second part of this newsletter.

The case of Sirius B is analysed in the Section V because this star& has a tremendous importance for the present day astronomy because based on its characteristics some entire branches of physics have to be ruled out. In a previous newsletter it was shown how Sirius B can discard the entire General Relativity theory.

Now it is time to see other aspects.....

The spectrum of a white dwarf is simple, containing in principal only absorption lines from the hydrogen atom. But, unlike the same lines in the blue giant star, in case of white dwarf spectra hydrogen lines have a specific characteristic: lines are broadened due to the intense pressure on the surface of the star.

The question to be answered is: how the heck the white dwarf has only hydrogen in its atmosphere and no traces of any other elements, especially carbon or oxygen?

In a distillation process, if a mixture of liquid components with relative close molecular masses is heated, all the components can be found in the gaseous phase in certain proportion.

In case of a white dwarf formation (at temperatures of up to 80000 K), it is impossible to have such a segregation of carbon and oxygen from hydrogen and only some elements to form the degenerate state.

Any common sense mind would accept that some hydrogen has to be condensed into the degenerate phase and some carbon and oxygen has to remain in the atmosphere of the star.

What laws are governing the physical and chemical processes at the surface of such star that at 80000 K, no oxygen or carbon is present into the atmosphere!?....

In a previous newsletter it was postulated that a celestial body cannot have a mixture of degenerate and non-degenerate matter in its composition.

A white dwarf with a core formed by degenerate matter composed from C/O and at atmosphere composed from pure hydrogen is a fake model.

There are other arguments which support this idea and I am going to highlight some shortly.

The hydrogen or any other element harvested by the white dwarf before reaching the Chandrasekhar limit for exploding into a supernova, brings other problems for the modern astronomy.

No one has ever questioned the fate of the accretion disk though!

In the spectra of the supernova type Ia, the first thing to be identified have to be the constituents of the accretion disk and eventually the constituents of white dwarf atmosphere.

In case of a donor like our Sun, the spectra of a type I supernova must have hydrogen and helium lines, at least for a certain period of time.

The physical chemistry can came with other argument which rule out the accepted model for a white dwarf.

The Sun photosphere has a temperature of about 6000 K and in the Suns atmosphere one can see a lot of lines. Beside hydrogen and helium, quite all the elements found on Earth can be found in Sun atmosphere, only the ratio is different. Most elements are in traces amount in Sun atmosphere, and yet in the Sun spectra, one can detect the presence of these elements.

The fact that one can observe absorption lines in case of the Sun is "still an unresolved problem of astronomy”, and this was tackled in a previous newsletter about star model. For the temperature of 6000 K, one can "admit” that elements can be present as neutral atoms into Sun atmosphere.

By comparison a white dwarf can have a surface temperature of 80000 K, and at this temperature it is impossible to have an atmosphere of few hundreds meter depth containing neutral hydrogen. No "common sense” theory could be ever accepted, if it preaches such things. It is impossible for an atom to have electrons in the ground state – so it is told by quantum mechanics - at much lower temperatures!

The topic is going to be further debated in the sequel of this newsletter. On that occasion a detailed presentation about electrons degenerate matter is going to be made too.

The sixth section presents a very interesting article: Can a star go supernova twice?

Imagine that with latest technology, there was a chance to find and follow up the most luminous supernova ever discovered! In itself, it was already complicated to explain how this supernova was so bright …. but the surprise came a few months later when the supernova came alive again!

The last section is not about science but it of paramount importance because it unfold a bit the plan for this new theory implementation and about future. Quite the entire section is added bellow...

In a future newsletter I am going to open a discussion about the values of democracy we have being promoting and implementing.

The case of an ancient philosopher Socrates is going to be revisited with this occasion too.

Probably someone is going to say that such things happened long time ago and they are not relevant for the modern time because in the meantime we have "evolved” and the same things are not possible any more...

How wrong it is to imagine such things.!..

In the modern democracy, the methods of control and punishment have become so sophisticated that a dictator would really envy them!

Fighting against a tyranny one dissident can become a hero, but in the modern democracy for the same act of courage one can become only a number in an official statistic. For a dissident in a democracy the probability to have a "fatal” accident is greater than the probability of being killed by a tyrant in a despotic society......

Of course no one is going to deny that any society needs a structure of power and some forms of coercition for those individuals inflicting the laws.

The problem is democracy and especially modern democracy transformed into a tyranny of the mediocre and you have to guess the fate of the outstanding individuals … in modern times....

I think it would be necessary to write an entire book with all the menaces and threats I received in more than 20 years I have been working on this theory...

Not only individuals but top world institutions have been taking part in these kinds of practices and no one bothered to do something....

It is worth reminding us of at least two cases I have freshly in mind....

In a letter received a few years ago, the chancellor of UCLA, menaced me with a trial and quite severe punishment: imprisonment and a fine up to 2 millions US $. The reason: well, I have been sending to the UCLA scientists a newsletter about science and this was considered a criminal act...

By sure they were willing to go further with their intentions, but my answer was like a cold shower and the conflict remained at this stage and did not escalate.

I wrote to the chancellor that in the worse case I lose, the process in itself is going to make me free advertisement and by sure the public is going to become aware of the situation.

This does not mean they and other similar institutions renounced to take hidden actions against me...

An entire league of top universities and research institutions around the world made a coalition against me and as far as money was not a problem for them, various activities of sabotage were taken against me. Of course anyone knows how things are working in a democracy: no one in the top hierarchy gets his hands dirty and some intermediates are found to do such jobs....

It is difficult and maybe impossible to demonstrate how many such acts of sabotage and hacking have been indirectly supported by top scientists or top institutions…

But I have harvested all the banned or bounced emails and these are going to be used to make them pay when the license for using my theory is acquired.

Unfortunately for them I have survived and for the moment all these kind of actions have already an downward trend.

In the same time it is important to mention that last month, for the first time in more than two decades, a foundation donated to me about 440 Euro.

In my present life, the most reasonable man I have met was a cannabis cultivar. Probably, I would have accepted his support and made history with him, but there was a catch: he was reasonable only when his blood was uncontaminated by THC.

Maybe by chance I am going to have anther occasion to find some more appropriate reasonable person or people! Maybe by chance I am going to have anther occasion to find some renegades of society who want to make history! 

It is curious to see that in more than two decades no university or research centre in the entire world offered me a simple job and now each of them without my theory are out of the market...

As example, this newsletter was written during my commuting time or in the time I made available by skipping my meals. I forgot to mention that modern society considered appropriate to do an unqualified and of course low paid job for a living.

The technical frame for the transition to a new way of doing science is ready and is waiting for candidates (institutions and nations).

Of course in the first line only institutions which did not ban my advertisements are accepted.

Any private institution which wants to apply for a license has to agree for a decade of controlled research and in this period they have to do only some applicative research and learn the new theory of science.

Any public institution has to wait until the license conditions are approved by the government and after that they enter in the same framework as a private institution.

Further on, for each nation, for a half decade the entire process of education is going to be frozen and in this period new manuals for schools and universities are to be provided. New teachers have to be prepared for teaching the new theory ….

These preliminary conditions are valid for those who start the negotiations before the end of this year i.e. 2019.

By passing in 2020 or another successive year, other supplementary conditions have to be fulfilled.

Each subsequent passing year without implementing this plan means an extension with two years for the controlled research period and for the frozen interval for the education process. For example, if one institution or nation starts the negotiations in 2020, the controlled research period is going to be twelve years and the frozen period for education process is going to be seven years.

By sure, in this time interval, a lot of people are going to start the search for the liable and guilty people …..

What does  controlled research mean?

Well for the first year it means no research at all and most of the money allocated for research are going to be used for the license acquiring.

Starting with the second year, controlled research means that any research grant has to be approved by me or one of my representatives and on the other hand the lion share (at least 55% of money and intellectual rights) of the project is going to be mine.

There is no place for cheating because if a nation diminish the percentage of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) allocated to research, the price for the school manuals is going to be increased in order to recover the gap.

The price of license is going to be proportional to the money an institution or a nation have spent in research in general and especially in imbecile researches in the last decades.

If one institution has allowed billions of $ or £, €, ¥, etc., to be poured down the drain in the past, you have to expect a commensurate price for acquiring the license.

Of course we live in a free market economy and it is not compulsory to switch to the new theory of science. Anyone is free to stick to the present and continue doing what they are doing ….

At individual level there are other requirements for those who are going to work in research but these are going to be discussed after the official institutions acquire the licence.

There is no bypass nor exception from this plan and one has to accept that some of the top rated universities in the world are going to close the doors or remain to teach foreign languages, literature and philosophy.

If you are a young researcher, it is in your interest to lobby for adopting the new proposed theory as soon as possible.

Until now at least twenty generations of pupils and students were condemned to learn some imbecilities without any value for the future.

Is there a need that other few generations of youngsters to be condemned and get a deformed scientific formation until some imbeciles get retired?

In this way, by individual action of each person, you are going to diminish the cost of the entire process of acquiring a license and shorten the transition toward the future.

Do you think your nation has money to spend on imbecilities and no one is going to be made liable?

The adaptation to change is a first prerequisite for survival....and if actual universities or research centres should keep a simple objective in mind: how to survive.....

There is a bit of correspondence made available for the public, because this is the better way for securing the information.

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