by Michael Armstrong
Globular clusters are a particularly difficult problem for a gravity-
only cosmology. They should not be where we see them, and their
spherical configuration defies the expectations of standard theory.
astronomers continue to wrestle with problems posed by exotic
structures in space that appear to mock Newton’s elementary
“laws”. In their attempts to account for unexpected galactic
motions, astronomers have invoked invisible entities and forces:
Black Holes, "dark matter" and "dark energy”, which are imagined
to be far more powerful than anything actually seen. In
stepping out on this lily pad, they have even speculated that as
much as 99 percent of the matter in the universe is “dark” and
can be measured only by “apparent gravitational effects”.
was this resort to unseen matter that caused the notable Astronomer Halton
Arp to observe in Seeing Red that "past 90% it [dark
matter] begins to make observations irrelevant". In other
words, astronomers that believe this should stop taking money from
public institutions and get a real job making some valid contribution to
Within our own galaxy, the Milky Way,
globular clusters or spherical configurations of stars such as
M15 above, are a particularly difficult problem for a
gravity-only cosmology. By what mechanical magic does gravity
hold a million stars together in this way, as a sphere
rather than the familiar disk of gravitational models?
Gravitationally, spherical configurations of stars simply
hanging in space are absurd.
The problem is heightened by the fact
that M15 is only one of about 100 known globular clusters
associated with the Milky Way. Strictly speaking they are not a
part of our galaxy as traditionally defined. Rather they appear
close to the core of the galaxy as a spherical “halo” above and
below the center of galactic rotation.
Yet astronomers rarely acknowledge the
dynamic problems this creates. Theory states that clusters above
the plane must move on orbital paths around the center of the
dynamic system as a whole, and in completing an orbit each will
intersect the galactic plane twice. Such an intersection with
the plane would induce tidal distortions and disrupt the
cluster. Another concern is that the structure of the halos
could not be either formed or maintained.
The problem was recently noted by the
physicist C. Johnson of the University of Chicago, “It
is almost like physicists have been assuming they [globular
clusters] just hover there like a swarm of bees. But that
wouldn't happen. They could NOT just follow elliptical paths
above or below the Galactic Plane. Basic gravitational theory
insists that their elliptical paths pass through the
Galactic Plane, because the two halves of any path must be on
opposite sides of that Plane”.
Johnson suggests that something is
missing—and not a small piece of the puzzle. "It would appear
that either our understanding of the Laws of Physics is sadly
lacking, or our understanding of the geometry of the situation
is greatly in error. The commonly accepted view of a halo of
ancient, stable Globular Clusters hovering around the Core of
the Galaxy, like a swarm of bees, is just not compatible with
our current understanding of the Laws of Physics. Clearly,
further research is necessary".
The same quandary applies to the
relative motions of stars within each cluster. And while Johnson
accurately describes the gravitational dynamic, the rule he
applies is a formula for chaos. As any gravitational simulation
will demonstrate, it would quickly lead to some stars being
accelerated out of the system, while others would lose energy
and fall to an orbit closer in. Over time, the globular
clusters would largely just "evaporate", shrink, and
condense down into, into what?
But from another vantage point, it is
not unthinkable that the stars of globular clusters are
“just hanging there”, both with respect to the clusters’ own
center of gravity and the gravitational center of the galactic
disk to which the clusters are symmetrically linked. In the
electric universe model of stellar composition and energy, stars
are concentrations of highly positive-charged material. For
globular clusters, such a collection of stars with no other
external distorting forces in play might indeed form a stable
In fact, the new view of the universe
provides many examples of star-sized masses—even galactic
clusters—in symmetrical arrangements that gravitational
theorists never dreamt of (including polar alignments). And as
for the spherical form of globular clusters, the cosmic
electricians suggest that the best analogy may come from
something as unfamiliar to astronomers as ball lightning.