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  one who is striking at the root."
- Henry David Thoreau
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Cosmology Article Links
   Cosmology - General

Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
   Redshift
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
   Nebulas
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Impossible Cosmology
Star Sqashes Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
   Cometology
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
   Plasma
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
   Miscellaneous
EU Discharges & Scars
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Solar Capture
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus

Terrestrial Gravitational Anomalies
Dwardu Cardona

Let me start by saying that although gravity is one of the cornerstones of modern science, nobody knows what it is. While this force has been conjectured to exhibit the properties of a wave, it has also been surmised to display the characteristics of a particle stream. Worse than that—and this may come as a surprise to some—nobody knows how it really works. As John Boslough reported for National Geographic, gravity is the least understood force in nature. Although its effects can be measured with precision, “nobody knows exactly what drives gravity—what makes it happen.” It is also “the only force man cannot [yet] control.” Despite the law it is supposed to follow, it often simply does not. Even here on Earth, let alone farther out in space, gravity is full of anomalies.

Take, for instance, the surprising discovery that Earth is gaining weight in its mid-section and thus affecting gravity which is getting stronger at the equator and weaker at the poles. This, however, must not be considered as proof of Earth expansion or, worse still, of a terrestrial increase in mass. What is happening is that, due to a change in oceanic circulation, which is brought about by Earth’s slow isostatic rebound following the melting of the Pleistocene Ice Age, Earth’s mass has been steadily shifting toward the equator.

The cause is thus a redistribution of mass, and thus affects localized gravitational intensity. And most terrestrial gravitational anomalies are due to similar causes since gravity is affected by localized concentrations of mass. This is why a weight at the end of a flexible line will be attracted out of the perpendicular when suspended close to a mountain or a cliff. The concentration of material in the mountain or cliff will have a greater pull on the weight. So, for instance, over the Indian Ocean north of Madagascar, where the Earth’s surface actually bulges and the pull of gravity is particularly stronger than normal.

Gravity is also especially strong in central Africa and the Himalayas, while it is noticeably weaker in Hudson’s Bay and the Indian Ocean south of Madagascar. And, similarly, with the lunar basins which, because of their denser material, create an immense gravitational pull, and which, in 1969, caused Neil Armstrong to miss his projected landing site by seven kilometers. These anomalies, however, are well understood.

The study of gravity goes back to Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) who reached the false conclusion that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones. In this he was deceived by the fact that a person can throw a light object farther than a heavier one.

It took Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 A.D.) to show that this could not be so. Galileo did not really drop objects off the leaning tower of Pisa to prove his case as generally believed. What he did was roll balls of different weights down ramps through which he showed that objects fall at the same rate regardless of their individual weight. But in the late 1900s came Ephraim Fischbach who showed that this, too, was a false assumption, a proposition that was then picked up by others. Objects of different weights do fall at different rates in accordance with their atomic makeup—“the more tightly packed the atomic nucleus, the slower the fall.” This results in a force which opposes gravity—a weak one, to say the least, with only about one per cent of gravity’s strength—which physicists started calling the hypercharge, or fifth, force. A ball of iron, with high binding energy, it has been argued, incurs a strong antigravity lift and falls slightly slower than a wooden ball of equal weight.

Others, conducting different experiments, not only came to the same conclusion—although they offered different causes for the phenomenon—but realized that objects dropped down into mine shafts and bore-holes did not live up to expected gravitational pull. The deeper one goes into the Earth, the stronger should be its gravitational attraction since one would be closer to Earth’s centre. But although various weights dropped into such depths did show an increase in gravitational pull, the additional attraction was less than predicted by Newton’s law. True, we are here talking about micro-measurements (.0341 as opposed to .0345 percent) but that is besides the point.

opposition to the above, the higher one goes the lesser should be the pull of gravity for the simple reason that one would be moving farther from the centre of Earth. But researchers who conducted experiments on top of a 2,000-foot TV tower in North Carolina discovered that the gravitational pull on objects decreased much more rapidly than it should have. As if a theorized fifth force was not enough, the researchers suggested an additional “attractive, very-short-range sixth force” which “might be supplementing gravity (and overcoming the repulsive fifth) near the base of the tower.” Needless to say, it was inevitable that these suppositions would generate monumental controversy among physicists, that is always the case when old paradigms are upset.

The theory has however been tested through various experiments by various others and the theorized discrepancy in gravity seems to have been validated. The results of these experiments, however, have not led to the same conclusion. And there were experiments which showed no deviation at all. But even if such a fifth and/or sixth force exists—and there are many who continue to deny their existence—it remains conditional to local variation. Earth’s overall gravitational mass still pulls toward a single point at the globe’s centre, overpowering all such local, and thus miniscule, deviations.

One certainty thatBoslough stressed is that gravity “governs our height and shape,” as it must have governed the height and shape of previous organisms. “We are children of gravity [Ralph Pelligra stated]. As we age, we reach a point when we begin to yield to it. Sagging skin and organs, varicose veins, arthritis, failing hearts—these all come from the lost battle against gravity. We can’t touch it or see it. But it has guided the evolutionary destiny of every plant and animal species and has dictated the size and shape of our organs and limbs.”

Can you imagine what gravity would do to us had it been a great percentage stronger than at present? And can anyone imagine what the present state of gravitational attraction would have done to those 80-ton megasaurs?

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