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  one who is striking at the root."
- Henry David Thoreau
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Cosmology Article Links
   Cosmology - General

Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
   Redshift
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
   Nebulas
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Impossible Cosmology
Star Sqashes Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
   Cometology
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
   Plasma
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
   Miscellaneous
EU Discharges & Scars
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Solar Capture
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus

"The inertia of the human mind and its resistance to innovation are most clearly demonstrated not, as one might suspect, by the ignorant mass --which is easily swayed once its imagination is caught--but by professionals with a vested interest in tradition and in the monopoly of learning. Innovation is a two-fold threat to academic mediocrities; it endangers their oracular authority, and it evokes the deeper fear that their whole laboriously constructed intellectual edifice may collapse." - Arthur Koestler in The Sleepwalkers

FALLACIES OF GRAVITATION
By Wal Thornhill

D.E. Davis asks Wal Thornhill:

Here's some of Velikovsky¹s' "empiric evidences of the fallacy of the law of gravitation"...Any thoughts on how these stand up today?

No.12: Because of its swift rotation, the gaseous sun should have a latitudinal axis greater than the longitudinal, but it does not have it. The sun is 10^6 times greater than the Earth, and its day is 26 times longer than the terrestrial day; the swiftness of its rotation at its equator is over 125km per minute; at the poles its velocity approaches zero. Yet the solar disk is not oval but round: the majority of researchers even find a small excess in the longitudinal axis of the sun. [Comp.Ch.L.Poor, Gravitation versus Relativity, 1922, p98]

The planets act in the same manner as the rotation of the sun, imposing a latitudinal pull on the luminary. ³Gravitation that acts in all directions equally leaves unexplained the spherical shape of the Sun. As we saw in the preceding section, the gases of the solar atmosphere are not under a very strong pressure, but under a very weak one.

Therefore, the computation, according to which the ellipsoidity of the sun, that is lacking, should be slight, is not correct either. Since the gases are under a very low gravitational pressure, the centrifugal force of rotation must have formed quite a flat sun. ³Near the polar regions of the sun, streamers of the corona are observed, which prolong still more the axial length of the sun.²...

[WT] This fact remains a mystery for astronomers. If the Sun weren't spherical we would not be able to have total solar eclipses. However, if the Sun is defined in all of its important attributes by its electrical charge and electrical environment, then that includes its apparent mass and "gravitational" field.

So, calculations about the degree of oblateness to be expected from Newton's laws and a universal constant, G, are meaningless. Importantly, the discovery that the Sun's magnetic field lines are not crowded together at the poles like a normal dipole magnet, but spaced out evenly, suggests that the Sun is the focus of a spherically symmetrical discharge (also to be expected from its appearance). In that case, the shape of the photosphere of the Sun will be defined and dominated by electrical forces far more powerful than gravity.

No.20: ³Unaccounted for fluctuations in the lunar mean motion were calculated from the records of lunar eclipses of many centuries and from modern observations. These fluctuations were studied by S.Newcomb, who wrote: I regard these fluctuations as the most enigmatic phenomenon presented by the celestial motions, being so difficult to account for by the action of any known causes, that we cannot but suspect them to arise from some action in nature hitherto unknown¹ [S.Newcomb, Monthly Notices, R.A.S., January 1909]

³They are not explainable by the forces of gravitation which emanate from the sun and the planets.²

[WT] The last statement is only true if the assumption that G is constant, is true. In the electric universe model it is not.

Anything that transfers charge to or from the Moon or Earth, such as coronal mass ejections or the brushing past of the plasma tail of Venus, will change G from its mean value. In a fixed G cosmology, all such fluctuations will appear inexplicable.

No.22 ³The tails of comets do not obey the principle of gravitation and are repelled by the sun. There is beyond question some profound secret and mystery of nature concerned in the phenomenon of their tails¹;¹enormous sweep which it [the tail] makes round the sun in perihelion, in the manner of a straight and rigid rod, is in defiance of the law of gravitation, nay, even of the recorded laws of motion¹ [J.Herschel, Outlines of Astronomy, p406]

What has puzzled astronomers since the time of Newton, is the fact that while other bodies in the sidereal universe, as far as we are aware, obey the law of gravitation, comets' tails are clearly subject to some strong repulsive force, which drives them away from the matter composing them away from the sun with enormously high velocities¹ [W.H.Pickering].²

[WT] Cometary phenomena are subject to the laws of plasma physics associated with electrical discharge. It is the last four words of that sentence that cause astrophysicists to choke on their self-congratulatory cigars and result in their inability to sensibly explain the non-gravitational forces plainly evident in the behavior of cometary tails. Sunward pointing ion tails have been seen and explained away as being an illusion (rather in the manner required to explain superluminal motion associated with some quasars). Not only the tails but also the nuclei of comets fail to obey Newton's laws. In that case we see some priceless ad-hocery where the jets emanating from the comet are called upon to act like rocket engines in any way necessary to save appearances. But the jets themselves are not explained by boiling away of surface material through ad-hoc vents. They are simply plasma beams which machine ions from the surface indiscriminately - as discovered recently when the ice required to blow off the dust seemed to be missing.

As Prof. Emeritus R A Lyttleton so aptly described the state of play with respect to accepted comet theory: "It is not realised by these would-be theorists that the need for special assumption after special assumption in order to 'save' the theory is simply nothing more than indication after indication that the original hypothesis is incorrect, whereas the long list of assumptions are perversely and proudly regarded by them as 'discoveries' of actual properties of comets. The resulting fairy-story theory provides a typical example of what [Irving] Langmuir has termed Pathological Science, or 'The science of things that aren't so'. (Speculations in Science & Technology, Vol 8, No 5, p. 346).

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