Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
By Don Scott
The Electric Sun hypothesis is a logical extension of the
Electric/Plasma Universe theory which came into being through the
seminal work of Hannes Alfven, Kristian Birkeland, P. Carlqvist
and others. The person who originated and codified these ideas is
the late Ralph E. Juergens of Flagstaff, Arizona. .The ideas
embodied by the Plasma Universe are now being developed further by
researchers such as Wallace Thornhill, Anthony L. Peratt, Eric
Lerner, and others.
PROBLEMS WITH THE THERMONUCLEAR (FUSION) MODEL
"The certainty that the Sun generates its prodigious
outpourings of energy through thermonuclear reactions deep in its
interior has been with us for about half a century." [Juergens 1979].
But, there are many reasons to doubt this presently accepted
theory of how our Sun (and every other star) generates its radiant
energy. In almost every article written for the popular press,
the very first sentence usually contains some reference to
"fact" that the Sun is, at its core, a thermonuclear fusion
reactor. The heat (energy) produced in this core then "rises
to the Sun's surface by convection (a laminar fluid flow) and is
there radiated out into space". The granulations we see on the
photosphere are supposedly the tops of these convection columns.
The fusion model was first proposed by a "great expert" who
simply rejected the idea that the Sun could be getting its energy
from outside - because he could not conceive of such a thing happening.
Therefore, if the energy was coming from inside, and the Sun
hasn't burned up in a few billion years, the source had to be
There are at least five major things wrong with this scenario. The
first and most important is the "Missing Neutrino Problem".
1. Missing Neutrinos
A thermonuclear reaction of the type assumed to be powering the
Sun must emit a flood of neutrinos. These neutrinos have not been
found after thirty years of searching for them. A series of
grandly expensive experiments have failed to find the necessary
neutrino flux. Wouldn't a normally intelligent scientist now stop
and go back and ask if perhaps some other mechanism might be at
the root of this energy production?
Mainstream science has consciously turned a blind eye to the
possibility of any other energy producing mechanism in the Sun.
Instead, presently there is great activity trying to explain how
the flood of neutrinos that "must be there" remains invisible. It
is suggested that neutrinos must come in various "flavors", some
of which are unobservable.
A detailed description of the "Missing Neutrino Problem" is
A Quote from Astronomy Magazine Jun 1999
"The results of Davis's experiment are now the stuff of
science legend. While the cleaning solution proved successful at
capturing solar neutrinos, the surprise was how few of them
there were to catch - less than half the number predicted by
[thermonuclear] solar models. The results have since been
confirmed by other experiments, all of which use different means
of detecting neutrinos. No matter how astrophysicists adjust
their [thermonuclear] solar models, it has proven impossible to
accommodate the experimental results within standard theory.
With astrophysicists confident that their understanding of solar
physics was on firm ground, suspicions turned toward the neutrino
itself as the source of the problem."
WHY were they confident they were on "firm ground" when all
the experimental evidence strongly suggests just the opposite?
Some solar neutrinos have been observed - but less than half
the number required if the fusion reaction really is there in
the Sun's core. If any fusion is taking place at all, it is most
certainly not at the sun's center. The negative results from
the neutrino experiments have resulted not in any re-examination
of solar models, but rather, an intense theoretical discussion
of new magical properties that solar neutrinos "must have"
because we cannot see them.
In the Electric Sun model there is no energy produced in the core
- energy is produced at the surface and not by nuclear fusion, but
by electric arc discharge. There is no "missing neutrino"
problem in the Electric Sun model.
2. Convection of Energy Up from the Core
The accepted view of how the sun transports its energy from its
central core outward to its surface is the mechanism dubbed "non-
stationary convection." The granules that are visible on the
photosphere are, in the accepted view, the tops of laminar
columns that penetrate down toward the core. Supposedly, heat
(energy) is smoothly transported outward from the core in this
"convection zone" via these tubes. There are several
problems with this idea.
The Reynolds Number
"The Reynolds number is a dimensionless measure that combines
several physical parameters and pinpoints conditions under which a
moving fluid will behave this way or that way. The number is
essentially a ratio between forces tending to accelerate a fluid
medium and viscous forces that resist such acceleration. Under
given conditions, motions in one fluid - liquid, gas, or plasma -
will be unlike those in another fluid unless their respective
Reynolds numbers are approximately the same."
When the Reynolds number of any fluid exceeds a critical value,
flow in that fluid due to convection or any other accelerating
force will be turbulent and highly complex.
"The actual Reynolds number of the photosphere, as calculated from
observable characteristics of the plasma, turns out to be in
excess of 10^11, which is to say, at least 100 billion times
greater than the critical value! Clearly, then, any convective
motion in the photosphere should be violently turbulent and
highly disordered..." [Juergens 1979].
Again, to quote Juergens: "Many facile assertions to the
contrary, it becomes increasingly obvious that photospheric
granulation is explainable in terms of convection only if we disregard what
we know about convection. Surely the cellular structure is not
to be expected."
In the Electric Sun model there is no transporting of energy
from the core up to the surface - energy is produced at the surface.
There is no need for magical "non-stationary convection." The
"granules" are really anode tufts (electric arc discharges).
3. Temperature Minimum below the Corona
Any typical source of radiant energy is expected to obey the
inverse square law. That is to say, the farther we get away from
it, the less energy we receive per unit area. A wood stove is
hottest at its core, a bit less on its outside surface, and as we
backup away from it, we feel continually less and less radiant
energy on our body. This too is the way the Sun ought to act if
it really is generating all its energy in its core and then
liberating that energy at its surface.
Instead, however, the Sun is coolest at its surface - only about
6000K! But then, as we back farther away from it, the temperature
abruptly jumps to about 2 million K in the corona.
Figure 1. Energy, E-field, and Charge density profile as a
function of radial distance from the Sun's surface.
The standard fusion model is completely incapable of explaining
(let alone predicting) this behavior. . . . The Electric Sun model
predicts the temperature minimum and shows why it occurs (see below).
4. Acceleration of the Solar "Wind" Ions
The positive ions that are the main constituent of what mainstream
astronomers euphemistically call the solar "wind" move
faster and faster the farther away from the Sun they get. They
accelerate! Nothing in the fusion model predicts nor explains this
observed phenomenon. The orthodox "explanation" is that photons
collide with the ions and accelerate them.
Any student of physics who has heard of electric charge and
electric fields, knows that the way to get electrically charged
particles to accelerate is to apply an electric field to them.
The acceleration of the positively charged solar "wind"
particles is a purely electrical phenomenon. It is accurately
predicted by the electric sun model.
5. Periodic Fluctuations in the Sun's Output and Size
There is experimental evidence that the Sun vibrates in a way that
throws doubt on both the assumed convection process for heat
transportation and the thermonuclear reaction itself. There is a
fluctuation with a 27 day 43 minute period observed in the stream
of particles emanating from the sun.
In the 1970's the Sun was observed to be oscillating in brightness
with variable cycles lasting from a few minutes to nearly one hour.
The sun actually expands and contracts in size (diameter) with a
periodicity of 2 hours and 40 minutes. Russian investigators
found a periodic rise and fall of the entire solar surface, the
amplitude of which was 10 kilometers in height. Then another
observer recorded a regular expansion and contraction of the
Sun with a period of two hours and forty minutes.
These pulsations are much more consistent with a homogeneous
model of the Sun - like a balloon whose gases are of uniform
density throughout its body. In Nature (Jan 15, 1976) two British
theorists, J.Christensen-Dalsgaard and D.O. Gough emphasized the
unlikelihood that any model can be devised for the Sun to
accommodate both the observed radial oscillations and the
thermonuclear theory. They are also consistent with a model
wherein the Sun is an isodense sphere of gas that supports,
on its outer surface, an electric arc discharge powered externally, electrically.
THE ELECTRIC SUN HYPOTHESIS
Juergens, Milton, Thornhill (and others) propose an electrical
mechanism for the energy release of the Sun. The major properties
of this Electric Sun model are as follows:
Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma
(rarefied ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and
ionized atoms (positive charges). Every point in the plasma has a
measurable (electric) potential energy (or voltage).
The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than
is the space plasma surrounding it - probably in the order of 10
The Sun is powered, not from within itself, but from outside, by
the electric (Birkeland) currents that flow in our arm of our
galaxy as they do in all galaxies. In the Plasma Universe model
these currents create the galaxies and the stars within them. It
is a small additional step to propose that these currents also
power those stars. Galactic currents are of low current density,
but, because the size of the Sun is large, the total current
(Amperage) is high. The Sun's radiated power at any instant is
due to the energy imparted by incoming cosmic electrons. As the
Sun moves around the galactic center it may come into regions of
higher or lower total current and so its output may vary (both
periodically and over time).
Positive ions leave the Sun and cosmic electrons enter the Sun.
Both of these flows add to form a net positive current leaving the
Sun. This constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way
(except size) to those that have been observed in electrical
laboratories for decades.
The Sun's radiative lifetime will extend only until the solar
charge (and therefore, its electrical potential [voltage]) equals
that of its galactic surroundings. Incoming cosmic ray protons,
which bombard the Earth and Sun from every direction, represent
currents (solar "winds") from higher voltage stars which
liberate positive ions with sufficient energy to overcome the Sun's
repelling voltage and impinge on its surface. (Is this mechanism,
by which the Sun is able to regain some + charge, significant in
extending its ultimate lifetime? No one knows at this point.)
Because of the Sun's positive charge (voltage), it acts as the
anode in a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the
phenomena observed in earthbound plasma laboratories, such as
anode tufting. The granules observed on the surface of the
photosphere are anode tufts.
The Electric Sun Hypothesis
Juergens, Milton, Thornhill (and others) propose an electrical
mechanism for the energy release of the Sun. The major properties
of this Electric Sun model are as follows:
1) Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma (rarefied
ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and ionized atoms
(positive charges). Every point in the plasma has a measurable (electric)
potential energy (or voltage).
2) The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than
is the space plasma surrounding it - probably in the order of 10
3) The Sun is powered, not from within itself, but from outside, by the
electric (Birkeland) currents that flow in our arm of our galaxy as they do
in all galaxies. In the Plasma Universe model these currents create the
galaxies and the stars within them. It is a small additional step to propose
that these currents also power those stars. Galactic currents are of low
current density, but, because the size of the Sun is large, the total current
(Amperage) is high. The Sun's radiated power at any instant is due to the
energy imparted by incoming cosmic electrons. As the Sun moves around
the galactic center it may come into regions of higher or lower total current
and so its output may vary (both periodically and over time).
4) Positive ions leave the Sun and cosmic electrons enter the Sun. Both
of these flows add to form a net positive current leaving the Sun. This
constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way (except size) to
those that have been observed in electrical laboratories for decades.
5) The Sun's radiative lifetime will extend only until the solar charge
(and therefore, its electrical potential [voltage]) equals that of its galactic
surroundings. Incoming cosmic ray protons, which bombard the Earth and
Sun, represent currents (solar "winds") from higher voltage stars which
liberate positive ions with sufficient energy to overcome the Sun's repelling
voltage and impinge on its surface. (Is this mechanism, by which the Sun
is able to regain some + charge, significant in extending its ultimate
lifetime? No one knows at this point.)
6) Because of the Sun's positive charge (voltage), it acts as theanode in
a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the phenomena observed in
earthbound plasma laboratories, such as anode tufting. The granules
observed on the surface of the photosphere are anode tufts.
A cross-section taken through a granule is shown in the three
plots below. See Don Scott's website for graphs at:
The horizontal axis of each of the three plots is distance,
measured radially outward, starting at a point near the bottom of
the photosphere (the true surface of the Sun - which we can only
observe in the umbra of sunspots). The first plot shows the
energy per unit (positive) charge of an ion as a function of its
radial distance out from the solar surface. The second plot, the
E-field, shows the outward radial force (toward the right)
experienced by such a positive ion. The third plot shows the
locations of the charge densities that will produce the first two plots.
Figure 3. Energy, Electric field strength, and Charge density as a
function of radial distance from the Sun's surface.
All three of these plots are related mathematically. By the laws
of physics: E = - dV/dr, and Chg density = dE/dr. In words: The
value of the E-field, at every point r, is the (negative of) the
slope of the energy plot at that point. The value of the charge
density at each point, r, is the slope of the E-field plot at that
point. The charge density plot necessary to produce the compound
energy curve between points c and e used to be called a "double
sheath". Modern nomenclature calls it a "double layer"(DL).
It is a typical and well known phenomenon in a plasma discharge.
Because of the DL being there between points c and e, a +ion to
the right of point e sees no electrical force from +ions to the
left of point c.
The energy plot (above) is for positively charged particles.
Because the E-field represents the force (toward the right) per
unit charge on a positively charged particle, the region wherein
the E-field is negative (a to b) is a region where positively
charged particles will be accelerated toward the left - inward,
toward the Sun's surface. One can visualize them falling down the
energy hill from point b to a. Any +ions attempting to escape
outward from within the body of the Sun must have enough energy to
surmount this energy barrier.
In order to visualize the effect this energy diagram has on
electrons (negative charges) coming in toward the Sun from cosmic
space (from the right), turn the energy plot upside down. Doing
this enables us to visualize the "trap" that these photospheric
tufts are for incoming electrons. As the trap fills, the energy
level between b and c (inverted for electrons) rises, and so the
tuft shrinks, and eventually disappears. This is consistent with
the observed random movement and shrinkage of photospheric granules.
Charged particles do not experience electrical forces in the range
b to c. Only random "thermal" movement occurs due to diffusion.
At a point just to the left of point c, any such random movement
toward the right (radially outward) that carries it even slightly
to the right of point c will result in a + ion being swept away,
down the energy hill, toward the right. Such movement of charged
particles due to an E-field is called "drift". This drift of
positive ions is the source of the solar "wind" (which is a
As positive ions accelerate down the potential energy hill from
point c through e, they gain extremely high radial velocity and
lose random motion. Thus, they become "dethermalized". In
this region, the movement of these ions becomes extremely organized
(parallel). The pinch effect of parallel current filaments in a
plasma should be very strong. If any fusion is taking place on the
Sun it is likely occurring here (not deep in the core).
When these rapidly traveling + ions pass point e they lose most of
the radially directed E-field force that has been accelerating
them. Because of their high velocity, any collisions they have at
this point (with other ions or with neutral atoms) are violent and
create high amplitude random motions, thereby "re-thermalizing"
the plasma to a much greater degree than it was in the
photospheric tufts (in the range b to c). This is what is
responsible for the high temperature we observe in the lower
corona. The photosphere has temperatures reported to be from 4000
K to 6000 K. Ions in the lower corona (just to the right of point
e) are reported to be at temperatures of 1 to 2 million K.
Nothing else but exactly this kind of behavior could be expected
from the electric sun (anode tuft - double layer) model. The "re-
thermalization" takes place in a turbulent region analogous to the
"white water" boiling at the bottom of a smooth waterfall.
In the fusion model no such "waterfall" exists - and so neither
does an explanation of the temperature minimum.
The energy plot in figure 3 (to the right of point e) actually
trails off, with slightly negative slope, toward the negative
voltage of deep space (our arm of the Milky Way galaxy).
Consistent with this, a low amplitude (positive) E-field extends
indefinitely to the right from point e. This is the effect of the
Sun being at a higher voltage level than is distant space. The
outward force on positive ions due to this E-field explains the
observed acceleration of +ions in the solar "wind" (which is
another unexplained phenomenon in the "accepted" thermonuclear
model). Mainstream astronomers normally fall back on vague
references to the "Sun's mysterious magnetic field" to
explain just about everything they can't explain; this acceleration
of solar "wind" +ions is a case in point.
The particles in our solar wind eventually join with the spent
solar "winds" of all the other stars in our galaxy to make
up the total cosmic ray flow.
Astrophysicists tell us that the Sun is a rather mediocre star as
far as radiating energy goes. If it is electrically powered,
perhaps its mediocrity is attributable to a relatively
unimpressive driving potential. This would mean that hotter, more
luminous stars should have driving potentials greater than that of
the Sun and should consequently expel cosmic rays of greater
energies than solar cosmic rays. A star with a driving potential
of 20 billion volts would expel protons energetic enough to reach
the Sun's surface, arriving with 10 billion electron volts of
energy to spare.
It is interesting to note in passing that the three plots shown in
figure 3 are analogous to the plots of energy, E-field, and charge
distribution found in a pnp transistor. Of course in that (solid-
state) device there are different things going on at different
energy levels ("valence band" and "conduction band"). In the
solar case there are no fixed atomic centers and so there is only
one energy band where "the action is". In a transistor, the
amplitude of the collector current (analogous to the drift of
+ions in the solar "wind" toward the right) is easily controlled
by raising and lowering the difference between the energy levels
at points a and b (base-emitter voltage). Is the same mechanism (a
voltage fluctuation between the anode-Sun and its photosphere) at
work in the Sun? e.g., If the Sun's voltage were to decrease
slightly - say because of an excessive flow of incoming electrons
- the voltage rise from point a to b in the energy diagram of
figure 3 would quickly reduce the solar wind (both the inward
electron flow and the outward +ion flow). In May of 1999 the solar
wind completely stopped for about two days. The mechanism
proposed above explains it. The fusion model is at a complete
loss in doing so.
The volt-ampere characteristic of a laboratory plasma discharge
has the general shape shown in figure 4: The volt-ampere plot of a
plasma discharge. [see website–same as above].
This plot is for a plasma contained in a column - a cylindrical
glass tube with the anode at one end and the cathode at the other.
These two terminals are connected into an electrical circuit
whereby the current through the tube can be controlled. In such
an experiment, the plasma has a constant cross-sectional area from
one end of the tube to the other. The vertical axis of the plot
in figure 4 is the voltage rise from the cathode up to the anode
(across the entire plasma) as a function of the current passing
through the plasma. When we consider the Sun, of course, a
spherical geometry exists - with the sun at the center. Assume a
constant total electron drift moving from all directions toward
the Sun and a constant flow of +ions outward. As we approach the
Sun from deep space, the spherical boundary through which this
total current passes has an ever decreasing area. Therefore, for
a fixed total current, the current density (A/m^2) increases
as we move toward the Sun.
1) In deep space the current density there is extremely low even though
the total current may be huge; we are in the dark current region; there are
no glowing gases, nothing to tell us we are in a plasma discharge.
2) As we get closer to the Sun, the spherical boundary has a smaller
surface area; the current density increases; we enter the normal glow
region; this is what we call the Sun's "corona".
3) As we approach still closer to the Sun, the spherical boundary gets to
be only slightly larger than the Sun itself; the current density becomes
extremely large; we enter the arc region of the discharge. This is the anode
tuft. This is the photosphere.
Sunspots and Coronal Holes
In a plasma, the dimensions and the voltage of the anode tufts are
both functions of current density at that location (near the
anode). The tufts appear and/or disappear, as needed, to maintain
a certain required relationship between +ion and electron numbers
in the total current. This phenomenon was discovered and reported
by Irving Langmuir. In the Electric Sun model, tufting disappears
wherever the flux of incoming electrons impinging onto a given
area of the Sun's surface is not sufficiently strong to require
the shielding produced by the plasma double layer shown in figure
3. At any such location, the anode tufting collapses and we can
see down to the actual anode surface of the Sun. Since there is
no arc discharge occurring in these locations, they appear darker
than the surrounding area and are termed "sunspots". Of
course, if a tremendous amount of energy was being produced in the Sun's
interior, the "spot" should be brighter than the surrounding
photosphere. The fact that sunspots are dark supports the
contention that very little, if anything, is going on in the Sun's interior.
Because there is no anode tuft where a spot is located, the
voltage rise (region a to b in figure 3), which normally controls
the local flow of positive ions leaving the anode surface, does
not exist there. In sunspots, then, a large number of ions can be
ejected upward toward the lower corona. Such a flow constitutes a
large electrical current - and, as such, will produce a strong
localized magnetic field.
The Sun's corona is difficult to see except in solar eclipses and
in X ray images. In some X ray images of the Sun (such as the one
shown in figure 1(b) at the very top of this page) we can see
"coronal holes" - large dark regions in the brighter image
of the solar corona. The bright regions indicate hotter, more energetic
areas of the solar corona, mainly above the sunspot regions.
Strong electric currents also flow in and above the Sun's surface
in the vicinity of sunspots due to the voltage difference between
nearby anode tufts and the sunspots (where there are no tufts).
This region is called the sunspot's penumbra. These currents
produce magnetic fields. Since, in plasmas, Birkeland currents
follow magnetic field lines, the glowing plasma in these regions
often shows the complicated shapes of these spot-related looping
Prominences, Flares, and CME's
All of the above discussion applies to the steady-state (or almost
steady-state) operation of the Electric Sun. But there are several
dynamic phenomena such as flares, prominences, and coronal mass
ejections (CME's) that we observe. How are they formed? Hannes
Alfven, although not aware of the Juergens Electric Sun model,
advanced his theory (3) of how prominences and solar flares are
formed electrically. It is completely consistent with the
Any electric current, i, creates a magnetic field (the stronger
the current - the stronger the magnetic field, and the more energy
it contains). Energy, Wm, stored in any magnetic field, is given
by the expression Wm = 1/2 Li^2. If the current, i, is
interrupted, the field collapses and its energy must be delivered
somewhere. The magnetic field of the Sun sometimes, and in some
places on its surface, forms an "omega" shaped loop. This loop
extends out through the double sheath layer (DL) of the
chromosphere. One of the primary properties of Birkeland currents
is that they follow magnetic field lines. A strong current will
produce a toroidal magnetic field that will expand the loop. If
the current following this loop becomes too strong, the DL is
destroyed1. This interrupts the current (like opening a switch in
an inductive circuit) and the dissipation of the energy stored in
the magnetic field is explosively released.
It should be well understood (certainly by anyone who has had a
basic physics course) that the magnetic field "lines"2 that are
drawn to describe a magnetic field, have no beginning nor end.
They are closed paths. In fact one of Maxwell's famous equations
is: "div B = 0". Which says precisely that in the language of
vector differential calculus. So when magnetic fields collapse due
to the interruption of the currents that produce them, they do not
"break" and "recombine" (as some uninformed astronomers have
claimed). The field simply collapses (very fast!). On the Sun
this collapse releases a tremendous amount of energy and matter is
thrown out away from the surface - as with any explosively rapid
reaction. This release is consistent with and predicted by the
Electric Sun model as is shown above.
1. Double layers can be destroyed by at least two different
mechanisms: a) Zener Breakdown - The electric field gradient
becomes strong enough to rip all charges away from an area, thus
breaking the discharge path; b) Avalanche Breakdown - A literal
avalanche occurs wherein all charges are swept away and no
conducting charges are left - thus the conducting path is opened.
2. A magnetic field is a continuum. It is not a set of discrete
"lines". Lines are drawn in the classroom to describe the
magnetic field (its direction and magnitude). But the lines
themselves do not actually exist. They are simply a pedagogical
device. Proposing that these lines "break" and "recombine" is an
error (violation of Maxwell's equations) compounded on another
error (the lines do not exist in the first place).
The Power Source
The question, "Are there enough electrons out there in nearby
space to power the Sun?" is a valid one. Juergens studied it and
came up with the following answer: In an article compiled from
Juergen's notes after his death by Earl Milton, "Electric
Discharge As the Source of Solar Radiant Energy", Juergens
(Milton) says the following:
"The solar constant, defined as the total radiant energy at all
wavelengths reaching an area of one square centimeter at the
Earth's distance from the Sun, is about 0.137 watts per square
centimeter (See: R.C.Wilson, Journal of Geophysical Research,
83,4003-4007 1978). It works out, then, that the Sun must be
emitting about 6.5x10^7 watts per square meter of solar "surface",
and the total power output of the Sun is a (very nearly) constant
4x10^26 watts. The hypothetical electric discharge must then have
a power input of 4x10^26 watts.......suppose that the Sun's
cathode drop may be of the order of 10^10 volts, ...then..the
total power input divided by the cathode drop [is] 4x10^16
Let us suppose that the effective velocity of a typical
interstellar electron would be about 105 m/s, corresponding to a
kinetic temperature of a few hundred Kelvin. From current
estimates of the state of ionization of the interstellar gas, we
might conclude that there should be as many as 50,000 free
electrons per cubic m.(S.A. Kaplan, Interstellar Gas Dynamics -
Pergamon 1966). The random electric current of these electrons
then would be Ir = NeC/4 where N is the electron density per cubic
meter, e is the electron charge in coulombs, and C is the average
velocity of the electrons. Using the given values, we find that
the random electric current density should be about 2x10^-10
amperes per square meter through a surface oriented in any manner.
The total electron current that can be drawn by the discharge is
the product of the random current density and the surface area of
the sphere occupied by the cathode drop. There is little to
indicate how large this sphere might be, but in view of the
enormity of the cathode drop it seems likely that the radius of
the sphere would be large in terms of solar system dimensions.
The mean distance of Pluto's orbit is 39.5 AU, or about 6x10^12
meters. We might guess that the cathode drop would reach to at
least 10^13 meters from the Sun, so that its spherical boundary
would have a collecting surface area of somewhat more than 10^27
square meters. Such a surface could collect a current of
interstellar electrons amounting to practically 10^18 amperes -
twenty five times greater than the total current that seems
proper. And of course a larger sphere could collect an even
So there are enough electrons out there to power the Electric Sun.
Note that although astronomers ought to be aware that magnetic
fields require electrical currents to make them, currents and E-
fields are never mentioned in standard models. Nor do they seem
to be included in astrophysics curricula.
Why Doesn't the Sun Collapse of Its Own Weight?
How can we account for the fact that the Sun has been around for a
long time with something like the same luminosity, yet has not
collapsed in upon itself.3 In orthodox theory, a main-sequence
star like the sun behaves like a ball of gas, its temperature and
pressure both increasing monotonically from the outer surface
towards the center. The temperature is needed to sustain the
pressure, and the pressure is needed to fend off gravitational
forces which, in the absence of sufficient pressure, would lead to
collapse. It is hard to understand how in Juergens' theory, with
no fusion going on in the core, such a "reverse" temperature
gradient can be maintained.
The answer is best stated by Wal Thornhill:
"The electric star model makes the simplest assumption that
nothing is going on inside the Sun. ..... So for most of the
volume of a star where the gravity is strongest, atoms and
molecules will predominate. (In the electric model that applies to
the entire star). The nucleus of each atom, which is thousands of
times heavier than the electrons, will be gravitationally offset
from the centre of the atom. The result is that each atom becomes
a small electric dipole. These dipoles align to form a radial
electric field that causes electrons to diffuse outwards in
enormously greater numbers than simple gravitational sorting
allows. That leaves positively charged ions behind which repel one
another. That electrical repulsion balances the compressive force
of gravity without the need for a central heat source in the star.
An electric star will be roughly the same density throughout, or
We should also remember, considering a pair of similar particles
(say protons) that the strength of the electrostatic repulsion
force between them is something like 35 orders of magnitude
greater than the strength of gravitational attraction! (Not 35
TIMES, but 35 Orders Of Magnitude). So the offset of the electron
from the nucleus can be absolutely miniscule and yet produce an
extremely strong force to counteract gravitational collapse.
The Sun does not require internally generated heat in order to
3. The same question ("Why doesn't it collapse due to gravity?")
should be asked about globular clusters of stars or even galaxies.
The real answer in these cases is also electrical in nature.
There are many questions still to be answered regarding the
Electric Sun model. Is there any fusion at all occurring in or on
the Sun? If so, where - the chromosphere? - the bottom of the
corona? - penumbrae of sunspots? What is the exact circuit
diagram - precisely what paths do the galactic currents take in
the vicinity of the Sun? Will the solar charge be replenished
over time by cosmic ions ("rays")? Do incoming cosmic rays help
power the Sun? We know that large currents are necessary to
produce the Sun's strange and changing magnetic fields. Are the
magnetic field reversals observed on the Sun due to reversals (or
changes of some sort) in the galactic currents across which the
Sun is traveling? Or is the Sun simply traveling through many
different current streams? Are pulsars binary stars that act
together as relaxation oscillators?
This has been a brief introduction to the Electric Sun model: -
the idea that our Sun is a ball of lightning - a huge electrically
charged relatively quiescent sphere of gas that supports an
electric plasma arc discharge on its surface and is powered by the
subtle currents that move throughout the tenuous plasma that fills
The scientific community now ought to at least begin to re-examine
the assumptions of today's orthodox thermonuclear models which
fail to explain the most basic, observed, solar phenomena.
Juergens' Electric Sun model does predict the existence of the
temperature minimum. It doesn't require convection to occur where
it cannot. It does predict both the existence and the
acceleration of the solar wind. The neutrinos are not "missing"
they just aren't there.
All of the above are failures of the "generally accepted"
thermonuclear model that are easily understood from the point of
view of the Electric Sun.
Ralph Juergens had the genius to be the first to develop the
Electric Sun model after reading the works of Alfven, Birkeland,
Langmuir and other giants of electrical/plasma science. His model
uniquely passes the harsh tests of observed reality. His seminal
work may eventually get the recognition it deserves. Or, of
course, others may try to claim it, or parts of it, and hope the
world forgets who came up with it first.
1. The Physics of the Sun and the Gateway to the Stars - Eugene
N. Parker, Physics Today June 2000 p26-31.
2. Guest Editorial - Anthony L. Peratt IEEE Transactions on
Plasma Physics, Dec 1986. p.613.
3. Double Layers and Circuits in Astrophysics - Hannes Alfven
(Nobel Prize) IEEE Transactions on Plasma Physics, Dec 1986.
4. Model of the Plasma Universe - Hannes Alfven (Nobel Prize)
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Physics, Dec 1986. p.629.
5. The Persistent Problem of Spiral Galaxies - Halton Arp, IEEE
Transactions on Plasma Physics, Dec 1986. p.748
6. Evolution of the Plasma Universe: I Double Radio Galaxies,
Quasars, and Extragalactic Jets - Anthony L. Peratt IEEE
Transactions on Plasma Physics, Dec 1986 p.639.
7. Evolution of the Plasma Universe: II The Formation of Systems
of Galaxies - Anthony L. Peratt IEEE Transactions on Plasma
Physics, Dec 1986. p.763.
8. Intergalactic Plasma - Grote Reber IEEE Transactions on
Plasma Physics, Dec 1986. p.678.
9. STELLAR THERMONUCLEAR ENERGY: A FALSE TRAIL? - Ralph Juergens,
KRONOS A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis, Vol. IV, No. 4
Summer 1979, pp. 16-27.
10. THE PHOTOSPHERE: IS IT THE TOP OR THE BOTTOM OF THE
PHENOMENON WE CALL THE SUN? - Ralph Juergens, KRONOS A Journal of
Interdisciplinary Synthesis, Vol. IV, No. 4 Summer 1979, pp. 28-54.
11. THE NOT SO STABLE SUN - Earl R. Milton, KRONOS A Journal of
Interdisciplinary Synthesis, Vol. V, No. 1 Fall 1979.