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Cosmology Article Links
   Cosmology - General

Nature & Definition of Space
The Neutrino Aether
The Nature of Force Fields
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Galactic Rotation
3 Gravitational Fallacies
Globular Clusters
Stars: Nuclear or Electric?
Search of Two Numbers
The Pleiades Problem
Arp's Quasar Ejection
Gamma Ray Bursters
Olber's Paradox
Local Group Galaxies
   Redshift
Quasar in Front
The Fingers of God
Redshift Rosetta Stone
Seeing Red Review
   Nebulas
Wings of a Butterfly
The Bug Nebula
The Bullet Cluster
The Ornament Nebula
   False Cosmology
Religious Big Bang
Big Bang "Science"
Dark Matter
Relativity & Einstein Tragedy
Dent in Space-Time Fabric?
Absurdity of Neutron Stars
Impossible Cosmology
Star Sqashes Cosmology
Cosmologists: Wrong or Blind?
Vampire Astronomy
Gravitational Anomalies-Earth
Magnetar Dream World
   Cometology
Meaning of Deep Impact
Deep Impact Anniversary
   Plasma
Plasma 99-9%
Nature of Ring Nebula
Tornadoes in Space I
Tornadoes in Space II
Electric Lights of  Saturn
   Miscellaneous
EU Discharges & Scars
Star Fairy Ring
Ring of Stars
Planet Birthing
Planet Birthing-more
Solar Capture
Velikovsky, Heat of Venus


NGC 1365 supposedly harboring a supermassive black hole in the center.
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/INAF/Risaliti Optical: ESO/VLT

Vampire Astronomy

A complex central network of filamentary structure spirals down to the center of the galaxy. Astronomers say it provides new insights into super-massive black holes. It is more likely that it demonstrates electrical effects.

If John Wheeler hadn’t invented black holes, Bram Stoker would have had to. These vampires of deep space suck the mass out of any star or hydrogen cloud that wanders within their reach, and the x-ray shrieks of their dying victims transmit gravitational dread across the cosmos. High-tech telescopes can image the mangled remains of the corpses and plot the decaying energies of their final electromagnetic wails. They have bewitched both the popular and the scientific imaginations. But these are not creatures of natural physics; they are supernatural monsters that have been created from dividing by zero.

In November of 1915, Karl Schwarzschild worked out a solution to Einstein’s gravitational equations. A year later, David Hilbert worked out a similar solution, which has since been called the Schwarzschild solution, but he made a couple of errors. His solution “differs in the range of values allowed for the incorrectly assumed radius variable…that enabled the black hole to be obtained. The variable…is in fact not a radius at all, being instead a real-valued parameter by which the true radii…are rightly calculated.”

Several mathematicians pointed out these errors in the ensuing years, but their objections were ignored and their work was buried in neglect. Work on the Hilbert solution culminated in the unnatural object that, in the 1960s, John Wheeler branded a black hole.

In recent years, Stephen J. Crothers, a kind of “black hole slayer” from Australia, has published papers that disinter Hilbert’s errors. The standard “Schwarzschild’s solution” is usually given as:

The standard interpretation is that r is the distance from the center of the gravitating mass, m. With sufficient mass that is sufficiently compacted, the gravitational force will be stronger than all forces that oppose it, and the mass will become infinite as r goes to zero—a black hole. But this entails dividing by zero, a forbidden move. Schwarzschild’s actual solution was:

R is the distance from the center of the gravitational field and r is a parameter of the curvature of the space. In Euclidian space, R=r. But the space of General Relativity—and of black holes—is non-Euclidian. In Schwarzschild’s actual solution, as r goes to zero, R—the actual distance variable—goes to α, a non-zero number. There can be no point mass and therefore no black hole. Black holes, like vampires, are purely figments of imagination.

So what are astronomers looking at when they see black holes? They observe an explosion of energy where there isn’t enough gravity to generate it. Because they are ignorant about plasma phenomena, they can’t imagine anything but gravity that might produce such energy. Electricity, which could generate such energy, is taboo, and so they must resort to the sorcery of division by zero.

By Mel Acheson

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