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PHILOSOPHERS AND TERMS
Updated: 06/07/2020

[A]  [B]  [C]  [D]  [E]  [F]  [G]  [H]  [I]  [J]  [K]  [L]  [M]
[N]  [O]  [P]  [Q]  [R]  [S]  [T]  [U]  [V]  [W]  [X]  [Y]  [Z]

[A]

Abelard: 1079-1142  AD, , French.  Nominalism, Realism, not a rationalist.

Absolutism:  The government of one man whose power is not limited.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the unfallen balance of the universe does NOT operate this way.

Aesthetics: Science of sensual or non-conceptual knowledge, based on the psychology of perception.  Pursuit of beauty.

Agnosticism:  Connotes the doctrine that man does not and cannot know whether anything exist behind and beyond material phenomena, especially about a "first cause".
[Commentary]:

Agricola, Johannes:  40-93 AD, German Reformer, upheld antinomian doctrine (Gospel is in distinction from moral law).

Altruism:  Introduced by Comte and his followers, it is the view that the general welfare of society is the proper goal of an individual's actions: opposed to egoism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we always act in self interest, even God, and given the proper principles and values this IS the only defensible course.

Anabaptism:  Against Baptism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that baptism with water is an empty symbol taken from the Old Testament, that it has no efficacy outside of being saturated with the truth.

Anarchism:  Doctrine or faith in human perfectibility under the influence of reason and education where the need for coercive government would disappear.
[Commentary]: Ultimately, when there is no sin nor evil, there is no need for government of any kind, because all knowledge will be available, and telepathic communication from one to many and from many to one will be perfect. The pressure from time will be non-existant.

Anaxagoras:  500-428 BC  Greek  Believed that Mind was responsible for the creation of the world.  Denied the divinity of the heavenly bodies.
[Commentary]: Good for him!

Animism:  Originally the doctrine that the vital principle and the soul are identical, now a primitive philosophy of dualism or belief in spiritual vs material beings.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we are spiritual beings housed in material bodies.

Anthony, (Saint):  250-350 BC  Father of Monasticism.

Anthropomorphism:  Application to God of human body or mental qualities. Its total rejection leads to agnosticism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the Creator IS totally and only human.

Antinomianism: Doctrine of Ten Commandments or moral law not binding on believers
[Commentary]: It should never have been clear that the Ten "Words" were meant to be law or promises. And they were NOT dictated by God..

Apologetics: Christian theology concerned with the defense of faith and defeat of rival systems on the intellectual plane.

Aquinas, Thomas:  1225-1274 AD, Italy.

Aristarchus:  310-220 BC, an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known heliocentric model, with the Earth revolving around the "central fire". He put the planets in the correct order of distance, and thought that the stars were other suns. These correct ideas were probably adopted but later rejected by Ptolemy, and not until 1800 years after Aristarchus did Copernicus propose the heliocentric configuration of the solar system again.
[Commentary]: This is an example of a simple and profound truth that got buried and replaced by a falsity for centuries.

Aristotle:  384-322 BC    Athens.  Scientist, built philosophy on phenomena, originator of 4 types of explanation, actuality and potential.  Classifies all systematic thinking into a trinity: 1. theoretical, i.e. first philosophy, mathematics, physics  2. practical, i.e. ethics, politics, economics  3. aesthetic, i.e. poetic, useful, beautiful.

Arius:  256-336 AD, Alexandria.  Father of Arianism.

Arianism:  Christianity with doctrine of the "created son" and status different from God the father which denies the full equality and godhood of Jesus.
[Commentary]: These are only troubling issues in the wrong paradigm. The J person was the Original Creator, and actually contributed to the creation of the "Father", the corpus of unfallen human beings and their collective consciousness.

Arminius, Jacobus:  1560-1609 AD,   Dutch  Father of Arminianism. Believed that the bible must not be in bondage to Aristotle.  Became opposed to Calvinist determinism.
[Commentary]: denies that the Bible is the Revelation of God, so the issue is moot.

Arminianism:  A remonstrance on 5 points which are: 1. All who believe in Christ shall be saved, therefore predestination is conditional. 2. Christ died for all men but his atonement is only effective for believers. 3. Men's free will cannot bring salvation unaided, for they need regeneration by the Holy Spirit in order to respond to Christ. 4. Grace is the only means whereby men can seek and perform what is good, but it is not irresistible. 5. Only thru the Holy Spirit can sin be overcome, and so a believer may fall from grace.
[Commentary]: These issues don't come up in the proper paradigm.

Arnauld, Antoine:  1612-1694  AD, French Roman Catholic theologian, philosopher and mathematician, Chief of the Jansenists.
[Commentary]: A brilliant man who wasted his life sorting out falsities within the false paradigm.

Arndt, Johann:  1555-1621  AD, German, Forerunner of Pietism who turned from scholasticism to mystical devotion based on the mystical feeling of Christ dwelling within.

Asceticism:  In stoic philosophy, the mastering of the desires and passions.  In most systems it tend to be negative and repressive of all the normal human desires and tendencies.  Christian ascetics have consistently affirmed the aim of asceticism: to be the sanctification of the body by its subjection to god's will or law.
[Commentary]: This is crippling nonsense for humans made in the image of the Creator.

Athanasius, (Saint):   296-373 AD, Coptic Bishop of Alexandria.  Champion of Nicene Christianity, a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, and the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism.

Atheism:  Technically means without Theism, but sometimes connotes an extreme position of denying the existence of God, but one that is often confused with Agnosticism and Skepticism.
[Commentary]: Technically, an atheist can still be a deist.

Atomism:  The theory that the universe is made up of tiny, simple, indivisible particles that cannot be destroyed.
[Commentary]: It is hard to conceive otherwise.

Augustine, (Saint):  354-430 AD, Rome.  Greatest Latin father of medieval Catholicism:.  Considered by some to be the greatest psychologist and political thinker since Aristotle.  Augustine declared man to be so far corrupted by the effects of the fall that he is guilty before God and deserving of Damnation, unless by baptism: he enter into the redemption secured by Christ's passion; and that man's will is enslaved to evil desires until it is liberated by God's grace.
[Commentary]:

Aurelius, Marcus:   121-180   AD,  Roman  Stoic emperor of Rome of great virtue and character.

Ayer, Alfred J.:  1910-   AD, English.  Defended logical positivism.

[B]

Babi-Baha'i:  Persian Shiite movement.  Doctrines are simple and claimed to be the essence of all monotheism:.  Revelation is not final but progressive, all past prophets are accepted as genuine, incarnation and reincarnation are denied, universal peace, toleration and friendship are essential principles.  Has no priests nor special rites but prayers are enjoined at fixed times; polygamy and alcohol forbidden, and asceticism: and mendicancy discouraged.  Women directed to share as equals in social life.  Has a special "administrative order" of "divine origin" destined to become the framework of a great world commonwealth.
[Commentary]: The site thinking is compatible with SOME of this, but certainly not with the last sentiment about "administrative order".

Bacon, Roger:  1216-1292 AD, English  Franciscan Philosopher.

Barclay, John:  1734-1798 AD, Scotland,  Founded Bereans, a sect of Calvinist Christians that believed the knowledge of God is derived from the Bible alone; that faith, illuminated by the Holy Spirit, is essential for understanding the Bible and carries with it certain salvation, that unbelief is the unpardonable sin.
[Commentary]: Confused, misguided thinking from the old paradigm.

Barth, Karl:  1886- AD, Swiss.  Barth's teaching marks a turning point in the history of Christian theology.  Barth's theology marks a new epoch for the doctrine of predestination by assigning to Jesus as the Elect One and the Reject One of God a unique place.  Barth had a real problem reconciling the "wholly other" aspect of God and the humanity of God.
[Commentary]:

Bede, (Saint):  673-735  AD, English Monk who wrote many commentaries , homilies, letters and treatises on biblical subjects.  His aim was to hand on the learning of the fathers, hence he was widely respected and not controversial, being called "the venerable bede".  His writing did much to establish the practice of dating events from the birth of Christ.

Behaviorism:  The view that one can study animals and humans as input-output systems, the input being sensory stimulation, reward and punishment, and the output being behavior.  This view dominated American psychology until circa 1960.
[Commentary]: It may be of limited value, but it is the position of the site that this thinking is ultimately simplistic, reductionist and of limited value.

Benedict, (Saint):  480-543 AD, Italy  Associated with Monachism, Founded Benedictine or Black monks based on simple self-contained monastic family occupied with common prayer, private meditative reading and active work.

Bengel, Johann A.:  First protestant author to treat the exegesis of the New Testament in a thoroughly critical and judicious manner.  Viewed the Bible as less of a textbook of dogma and more an unfolding of God's purpose and immediacy.
[Commentary]: Even so, the foundational assumption is wrong.

Bentham, Jeremy:  1748-1832  AD, English. Effective philosopher of reform in law, politics and morals who impacted developments in these areas in England to a great extent.

Bergson,  Henri L.:  1859-1941 AD, French. Developed his doctrine of polar opposition between consciousness and the world of things in space.  The external world, as science knows it is a world of discrete measurable things, whose ultimate elements may undergo rearrangement, but never really change, and whose relations are rigidly determined by mechanical laws.  Consciousness is the opposite and is complex yet indivisible; for all its partial phases and successive stages interpenetrate each other–it is wholly qualitative.  When we attribute quantitative determinations to it, we do so by confusion.  Developed a concept of "duration" in which it is the "stuff of life" and developed his ideas of evolution around this concept.  Contrasted the "closed" morality of social groups with the "open" morality of the prophet, seer, reformer.
[Commentary]: What a mishmash of unintelligible rubbish!

Berkely, George:   1685-1753   AD, Irish-English, also known as Bishop Berkely, advanced theory known as immaterialism, and who argued with Newton's iconcepts on time and space, with ideas that were precursors to those of Mach and Einstein.

Bernard, (Saint):  1090-1153 AD, French

Besant, Annie:  1847-1933  AD, English.  Labored in the cause of Theosophy, founded Central Hindu College, Benares.

Beza:  .

Bidle, John:  1615-1662  AD, English non-Trinitarian, Father of English Unitarianism. He denied the pre-existence of Jesus but accepted the Virgin Birth, denied original sin and eternal punishment and accepted the Bible as the word of God.
[Commentary]: The site thinking is pretty much opposed to Bidle's thinking.

Boehme, Jakob:  1575-1624  AD, German  Father of German Theosophy.

Boethius, Severinus:  480-524 AD, Roman. Boethius composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages.

Bradley, F. H.:  1846-1924 AD, English

Brahmanism:  The religious doctrines and system of the Brahmans, who worship Brahma, their supreme and eternal essence or spirit of the universe and the chief member of the trinity and creator of the universe.
[Commentary]: It is worthwhile to note that Brahma was the original sun-god Saturn.

Brentano, Franz:  1838-1917   AD, Austrian   Theist who claimed that the essence of a knowledgeable soul is to refer beyond itself and to develop this referential evidence.  Philosophers who have grasped this truth may avoid both "psychologism:" and "irrealism:", that is the fallacies (a) of describing mental facts as if it were not their business to refer beyond themselves and (b) of forgetting that the true intent of minds is to refer to real things.

Brunner, Emil:  1889-1966  AD, Swiss reformed protestant theologian. Controverted with Barth over human nature in relation to God, and rejected Pelagian concepts of human cooperation with God in the act of salvation.
[Commentary]: The site author can't find any reason to take Brunner seriously.

Bruno, Giordano:  1548-1600  AD, Italy,   Fundamentally a Pantheist, his system religion hooked up with philosophy, and he stressed the immanence and omnipresence of the Divine Mind. This was allied to a belief in the unity of nature and the infinity  of the universe, to which he attributed one indivisible soul, called monism:.  Perhaps his monism:, in which he also developed Cusa's theory on the coincidence of opposites, is the most valuable part of his thought, together with his theories on morals, which present virtue as consciousness of a rule reducible to a universal law.  One of the most brilliant thinkers of his time, Bruno paved the way for Spinoza, who owed much to him, and indeed for the modern theories on immanence.

Buber, Martin:  1878-1965   AD, German-Jewish philosopher-theologian concerned with dialogue and existence who advocated of an Israeli nation state without a focus on Jewish culture or religion, and who spurned the titles of philosopher or theologian, and claimed he was not interested in ideas but experience; he would not talk about God but only relationships to God.
[Commentary]: The site author can't find any reason to take Buber seriously.

Buchner, Ludwig:  1824-1899  AD, German  Attempted scientifically to establish a materialistic view of the universe.

Buddha, Gautauma:  563-483  AD, Indian.

Buddhism:

Bulfinch, Thomas:  1796-1867 AD,  American author who said of his work, "Our work is not for the learned, nor for the theologian, nor for the philosopher, but for the reader of English literature, of either sex, who wishes to comprehend the allusions so frequently made by public speakers, lecturers, essayists, and poets, and those which occur in polite conversation.".

Bultmann, Rudolf: 1884-? AD, German  New Testament critic and theologian. He advocated rewriting the NT in existential rather than mythological language, relying heavily on the concepts of Heidegger's existentialist philosophy.
[Commentary]:

Bunyan, John:  1628-1688 AD, English prolific preacher and writer, author of The Pilgrims Progress, one of the more popular books of the genre. His thinking later became popular with the Victorians.
[Commentary]: His theology was wrong, wrong, wrong, but he was one of the more prominent Christian preachers and writers of the time.

Buridan, Jean: 1300-1358 AD, French  Follower of Occam,

Burke, Edmund:  1729-1797  AD, English political philosopher of wide vision and luminous thought who examined all the problems of his age, always basing his decision on moral grounds yet using the twin touchstones of history and expediency.

[C]

Cantor, Georg:  ?-1918 AD,  Mathematician who unfolded the structure of the infinities, showing that there is an infinite series of larger infinities.

Carnap, Rudolf:  1891-19 ? AD, German  One of the original members of the Vienna circle who developed the doctrines of logical positivism:, he did his earliest work in the philosophy of science and attempted to establish a rigorous phenomenalism:.  His work in logic was influenced by his doctrine that traditional philosophical problems were due to logical confusion and could be eliminated by more careful attention to syntactical and semantical aspects of language.

Calvin, John:  1509-1564  AD, French

Cassian, John:  360-435   AD, Israeli monk and theologian who led a protest  against St. Augustine's theology of predestination, founding the school known to moderns as "Semi-Pelagianism:"
[Commentary]:  .

Casuistry:  In the widest sense, the reasoning which enables a man to decide in a particular case between conflicting or apparently conflicting duties.  A further development of casuistry is Probabilism.
[Commentary]: In a world of myriad shades of grey, casuistry cannot be avoided.

Cartesian:  Of Descartes or his philosophical, mathematical ideas or coordinates.

Catastrophism:  The theory that geological changes are caused in general by sudden upheavals rather than gradually.
[Commentary]: Up until about 250 years ago when armchair scholars–who were trying to stem the influence of the Church of England–developed gradualism based on boundless amounts of time, the world was overwhelmingly catastrophic in its understanding of earth's history.

Causal decoupling:  Causal decoupling implies that to understand the material basis of certain rules, one must go to the next level down; but the rules can be applied with confidence without any reference to the more basic level.  The laws of chemistry depend on the existence and properties of the atomic nucleus but the detailed laws of nuclear physics are not needed to understand the laws of chemistry.  The division of natural science reflects this causal decoupling in the differentiation of nuclear physics, atomic physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics.
[Commentary]:  The site position is that is that this makes sense.

Causality:  Seems to be the necessary basis of all prediction of the future and of all inference from one existent to another.  Modern discussions about causality center around the efficient cause defined as the immediate producer of a change.  Despite attempts to undermine or prove causality, the chief reasons why it is still accepted are (a) that it seems self-evidently true; (b) that it is in some form a necessary presumption of induction.
[Commentary]: The site position is that is that prediction is limited because the creation of the future involves purpose as well as cause.

Celibacy:  The view, in those dualistic philosophies which regard all matter as intrinsically evil, that abstinence from sexual action is an essential condition of the good life.  Celibacy is canonized in the roman catholic church.
[Commentary]: This approach may avoid some troubling problems in life, but the underlying thinking is sick and twisted.

Centralism:  The principle or system of centralizing power, authority.
[Commentary]: This is generally antithetical to the way the Creator designed human affairs to work.

Classicism:  The aesthetic principles or qualities regarded as characteristic of ancient Greece and Rome; objectivity, formality, balance, simplicity, restraint, etc.

Clericalism:  Political influence or power of the clergy, or policies favoring this.
[Commentary]: Has no place with true Gospel believers.

Charron, Pierre:   1541-1603  AD, French moralist and theologian who established an enduring reputation in the history of philosophy as psychologist, skeptic, and forerunner of deism: who produced a most severe denunciation of a revengeful, prying and propitiable God.
[Commentary]: The site thinking also reflects most of this.

Chassidimism:  Jewish movement, founded on piety that arose before and during the Maccabaean period, that was the forerunner of pharisaism.

Chiliasm:  Also called Premillennialism, is belief in the physical return of Jesus to the earth before a Millennium age of peace on earth in what is called the Second Coming.
[Commentary]: The site position is that is that there is no such "Millenium". See Second Coming

Chomsky, Noam:

Christadelphians

Christianity:  

Christology:  The study or discussion of the status of Jesus as Messiah or Son of God, and his nature as God and human.

Chronology:  The science which treats of historical dating and sequence, its object being to arrange the various events which have occurred in the history of the world in their correct order and to ascertain the intervals between them.

Clement:  150-215 AD, Alexandria.  Christian theologian who drew freely on non-Christian sources, notably Plato, the stoics, and Philo, from whom he found support for Christian ideals.  His theology contained many of the germs of later mysticism:.

Clement I:  1st century AD, Rome.  He was counted as one of the apostolic fathers and supported the apostolic succession.  He may have been executed in 95 AD, on charges of atheism: or gnosticism: and Jewish practices.

Clericalism:  From Clergy.  The theory of a distinction between the Clergy and laity, where certain men have inherited a special dispensation to be holders of an allotted office.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this distinction is invalid.

Colenso, John: W.:  1814-1883 AD, S. Africa  A bishop who opposed the doctrine of eternal punishment and who questioned the historical accuracy of the Pentateuch and Joshua.
[Commentary]: The site position agrees with Colenso on these aspects.

Communism:  A doctrine of social equality and a critique of the inequalities associated with individual property which has been traced back to the Essenes, to Plato, to Thomas Aquinas and to Sir Thomas More.  Formally, the political movement dating from The Communist Manifesto of 1848. article I of which has the aim of effecting: "the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the establishment of the rule of the proletariat, the abolition of be bourgeois social order founded upon class antagonism, and the inauguration of a new social order wherein there shall be neither classes nor private property".
[Commentary]:

Comparative Ethics:  The study of the moral beliefs of men, i.e. what is right and wrong in human life and action.  It is distinguished from moral philosophy by the fact that it is chiefly concerned, not with the validity of moral beliefs, but with the question of what in fact men's moral beliefs have been, with the object to elucidate the nature of morality.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this fails to see the essential difference between morality and ethics.

Comparative Religion:  .

Comte, Auguste:  1798-1857 AD, French  Founder of Positivism.

Conceptualism: The doctrine, intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist explicitly in the mind as concepts, and implicitly in the similarities shared by particular objects.

Concretism:  The practice of seeking to give definite form to abstract things or ideas. See Reify.

Condillac, Etienne:  1715-1780  AD, French  Founder of sensationalism, He rejected the materialistic and atheistic conclusions which some of his followers immediately drew.  He believed all knowledge was derived from sensation and reflection and rejects the deductive rationalization of Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz.

Condorcet, M. J. A.:  1743-1794 AD, French  Became the chief of the ideologists, a group of materialistic philosophers concerned mainly with the origin and nature of human knowledge.  He looked forward to a human Utopia founded on reason and regulated by brotherly love.
[Commentary]:

Confucius:  551-479 BC, China  Philosopher of ethics.  As an ethical teacher Confucius takes his stand by the side of Gautama Buddha and Mohammed, but he is differentiated from these founders of world religions by the absence from his teaching of everything to do with the supernatural.  China's great philosopher displayed neither the mysticism: of Buddha, the spirituality of Christ nor the religious fervor of Mohammed.  He worshipped the ancient gods of China but as a teacher he dealt only with mundane affairs, declaring the ways of heaven and the laws of other worlds to be beyond human comprehension.  His appeal was primarily to reason, seldom to the emotions, never to the theistic immanence in man.  A humanist rationalist.
[Commentary]:

Confucianism:  See Chinese Philosophy
[Commentary]:

Congregationalism:  The doctrine held by those congregations which put emphasis on the autonomy of the individual group versus denominationalism.
[Commentary]: The site thinking rejects the whole idea of denominations.

Conservatism:  In the social and governmental field this is the conscious or instinctive preference for the maintenance of existing institutions and of the customary way of doing things.  It is not so much a dislike of change itself as a suspicion of changes out of harmony with the existing political, social or moral environment.  It is predisposed to give to existing political institutions the benefit of the doubt on the ground that they have grown up with the national life and have inherited a measure of emotional and practical support, acquiescence or legitimacy. In politics, it stands for minimal or limited government.
[Commentary]:

Constantine, F. V.:   280-337   AD, Rome  The first Christian emperor, he was a strong adherent of the sun worship of his ancestors; but before his march into Italy he was converted to Christianity, and instituted religious freedom.  He spent 4 years busying himself with defeating Donatism but admitted defeat and granted them tolerance.  Because of the Melitian schism and the Arian "Heresy" he summoned the first ecumenical council of Nicaea.  For some reason unknown he put to death his own son and his own wife.  He founded the second Rome at Byzantium.
[Commentary]:

Constructivism:  Also known as Constructionism.
[Commentary]:

Covenantalism:  The belief in and emphasis of the promises recorded in the Bible, ostensibly made by God, and generally divided into two, the old covenant and the new covenant.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is all mythology, and neither old or new "covenant has any validity.

Copernicus, Nicolaus: 1473-1543 AD, Renaissance/Reformation-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe (solar system) that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier. He adduced the principle that overvalued (bad) money gets circulated and drives out undervalued (good) money that flees the arena or gets hoarded.
[Commentary]:

Cosmogony:  The origin or generation, or a theory of these, of the universe.
[Commentary]:

Cosmology:  The branch of philosophy and science that deals with the study of the universe as a whole and of its form, nature, etc. as a physical system.
[Commentary]:

Cranmer, Thomas:  1489-1556   AD, English chief of individual influence on the English Reformation.

Creationism:  The doctrine that a personal Creator created the universe from nothing i.e. "Creatio ex Nihilo", and that not by any logical or metaphysical necessity but by the unnecessary creative volition of himself.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the Creator started a family, and that every member is a creator with equal involvement in the growing universe.

Croce, Benedetto:  1866-1952  AD, Italy    His philosophy has reality consisting solely in activity and process because mind is what it does.  Mind's activity has two distinct forms, theoretical and practical; with the first, mind understands things and makes them its own; with the second, it creates and changes them.  Each of these two forms has two distinct subdivisions, theoretical activity being either intuition or conception, practical activity being either the willing of the individual or the universal. These give rise to four spiritual activities (art, philosophy, economico-political activity and morality) and to four corresponding values (beauty, truth, utility, and goodness).
[Commentary]: The site position is that these ideas are worth consideration.

Cynicism:  In the ancient world this was a way of life invented by Diogenes, of which simplicity, freedom from convention and denunciation of other men's vice's were the chief characteristics.  Cynics considered their way of life to be not a general ideal but one to which they were called by God, whose soldiers they were.  The cynics were finally merged in the Christian preachers and ascetics.
[Commentary]:

Cyrenaics:   A school of Greek apologists of Hedonism:, Cyrenaics held that the end to be aimed at was the pleasure of the moment and that the accumulation of such pleasures could give happiness.  Although they would not undertake present trouble for the sake of an uncertain future pleasure, they would decline present pleasures that appeared likely to cause future pain.  They considered all pleasures equally good in the sense that they were to be judged purely on their amount; mental pleasures on this score generally inferior to physical pleasures.  Good sense was necessary to the pleasant life to enable men to make the best but also to warn them against longing for past pleasures and anticipation of future pleasure.
[Commentary]:

Cyril, (Saint):  ?-444 AD, Alexandria,  The resolute defender of the doctrine of unity of Christ's person.
[Commentary]:

[D]

Darwin, Charles:  1809-1882  AD, Eng    The uniformitarian evolutionist who had the greatest impact on modern natural philosophy with his epoch-changing The Origen of the Species by Means of Natural Selection.

Darwinism:  The Darwinian Theory, or adherence to this theory holding that all species of plants and animals developed from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight variations in successive generations, and that the forms which survive are those that are best adapted to the environment; also known as natural selection.
[Commentary]:

Deduction:  Reasoning in which the reasoner tries to establish the truth of some proposition (called the conclusion) by showing that it follows necessarily from, or is strictly implied by, a certain other proposition(s) and premise(s) already taken to be true.

Definition:  A fundamental aspect of what constitutes a language and logic; a special proposition or judgment precisely delimiting the meaning of a symbol or the essence of a thing.
[Commentary]: The site puts an emphasis on building with proper definitions.

Deism:  The name usually given to the theological and religious movement of the latter half of the 17th and first half of the 18th centuries.  Europe was much influenced by the scientific movement and upon the basis of incipient scientific discoveries the vogue of natural religion was developed.  Deist believed that the work of God as shown by the study of the created universe was as reliable a guide to his character as the study of his word written in the Bible.  This natural religion emphasized  the capacity of mankind through the exercise of reason to apprehend enough of the nature of God and of the duty of men for salvation without the positive precepts laid down in scriptural revelation.  In particular the beliefs in the existence and beneficence of God, in the necessity and obligation of the practice of virtue by men, in the immortality of the soul and in the surety of a future state of rewards and punishments could be established without the aid of revelation.  In order to accommodate this religion of nature to the Christian revelation a series of attempts was made to interpret Christianity as a simple republication of natural religion and to banish from Christianity all doctrines not comprehended within this lowest common denominator; hence the rationalistic reconstructions of the Bible.
[Commentary]:

Democritus:  5th century BC, Greek philosopher who developed the atomic theory where both indivisible, ingenerable, impenetrable, indestructible, unmodifiable atoms and the void are the ultimate realities.  His recognition of true knowledge proves that he was not a complete skeptic. Although not a hedonist, he paved the way for the theology of Epicurus.
[Commentary]:

Demonology:  The doctrine that relates to spiritual beings inferior in rank to deities but yet capable of influencing human affairs.  The earlier and more widespread conception of the demon was merely that of a powerful agency intermediate between gods and men.  The gradual differentiation between the beneficent and the malignant qualities of demons resulted in the division into good spirits or guardian angels and evil spirits or devils; and Christian theology, developing earlier Jewish ideas (themselves powerfully modified by Persian dualism:), worked the one class up into an elaborate hierarchy of angels and archangels, the other  into a formidable host of fallen angels or devils, considered as continually employed in frustrating the good purposes of God and marshalled under one master-spirit, the Devil proper.  The guardian angel concept corresponds with such conceptions as the Roman genius and the famous daimon of Socrates.
[Commentary]:

Demonism:  Belief in the existence and power of demons, or demi-gods.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there are only fallen human beings, that may have different levels of empowerment in various locales of the galaxy.

Denominationalism:  Acceptance or support of the principles or system of division into denominations, specific sects.
[Commentary]:

Deontology:  From Greek deon, "that which is binding".  Supporters of this ethical system hold two main positions: first, that the concepts of duty and obligation are simple and not analyzable in terms, say, of promotion of good; secondly that there is no general reason why acts which are obligatory are so.  The right and the production of the most good need not coincide.  They say they are not content with anti-utilitarian polemics but their primary intention is positive and constructive and is a revival of intuitionism, i.e. of intuitions of right and not like More or Sidgewick intuitions of only the good.
[Commentary]: The site position is that seems to accept a false dichotomy between right and good.

Descartes, Rene:  1596-1650  AD, French. Generally regarded as the father of modern philosophy.
[Commentary]:  

Despotism:  Rule or government by, or acceptance and support of the political system, methods and acts of an autocrat or despot.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this has no place in the realm of proper believers.

Determinism:  The doctrine that everything, esp. one's choice of action, is determined by a sequence of causes independent of one's volition or will.
[Commentary]:  

Dewey, John:  1859-1952 AD, Amer     A philosopher of great influence in the fields of law, education, psychology, history and the social disciplines.  despite his criticism: of the main classical traditions in philosophy on the ground that their theories of mind and experience were inadequate, his own conception of the nature and office of philosophy was essentially classical.  For Dewey scientific knowledge was the paradigm of all reliable knowledge.  He maintained that the rationale of the pattern of scientific inquiry in its most extended sense was applicable to the problem of determining the validity or truth of judgments of value.  At the same time he stressed, long before the logical positivists and existentialists, that values contain an irreducible element of commitment; but this did not place them beyond the reach of intelligent decision.
    Dewey's technical philosophy articulates an experimental naturalism:, rooted in modern science, which rejects all forms of philosophical idealism: and all varieties of traditional empiricism:.  Influenced by evolutionary biology, Dewey naturalized the concept of mind.  He construed it as an active response of the "acculterated" organism: as a whole to challenges and obstacles which, by interfering with habitual behavior, create problems.  Human experience is not some thing inaccessibly private or subjective; it is "transactional" with the environment.  In contradistinction to that of Locke and Mill, the transactional approach to mind contends that data are not found or given but always "taken" with respect to a specific problem.  Ideas are not images but "plans of actions".  Their meaning is to be understood in terms of their expected consequences in use.  Their truth is determined by the extent to which the predicted consequences of the action or experiment to which they lead are fulfilled in fact.  For Dewy, truths may save or be fatal,cure or kill,but in any event the truth cannot be established without some literal change in the world, i.e. in the problematic solution.  He claimed that his theory was the only one which plausibly explained how thought could make a difference to the world, something beyond the power of Cartesian dualism:, mechanistic or monistic materialism:, or idealism: to do.
[Commentary]:  

Diabolism:  Dealings with, or belief in or worship of the Devil or devils.
[Commentary]:  The site position is that there are no beings higher or more powerful than humans.

Dialectic:  Originally a Greek word meaning conversation, this was the method used by Socrates to criticize and elicit truth from the preconceptions of those with whom he argued.  He asked for a definition of the subject under discussion and then tested it by cross-questioning his interlocutor.  Instances were produced to which the definition did not apply, with the result that it was discarded in favor of another which, while preserving such merits as the first had possessed, transcended its errors and deficiencies.  Plato regarded dialectic as the method of philosophy; while the mathematician argued deductively from hypotheses accepted at the start, the philosopher submitted hypotheses to criticism: and gradually advanced to a principle at once non-hypothetical, certain and true.  Aristotle differed from Plato in treating dialectic as inferior to strict demonstration.  The Eleatics used it purely negatively and destructively.
   Hegel called the movement of thought from thesis through antithesis to synthesis dialectic.  In place of Hegel's idealism: for which thought came first, nature and history second, Marx substituted a materialism: which gave priority to matter.
[Commentary]:  

Didache:  A Christian document quoted by Clement and Origen and regarded by some to be genuine legislation by persons with claim to apostolic authority, it is a manual of church order.
[Commentary]:  The site position is that there is no profound efficacy with this document.

Diderot, Denis:  1713-1784   AD, French philosopher who showed how greatly all our ideas depend on our senses.  He fore-shadowed the evolutionary doctrine and evolved the first modern conception of the cellular structure of matter.  He exploited brilliantly the dialectical presentation of his materialist philosophy.  The most original thinker of the French 18th century, he was in turn a deist, a pantheist, skeptic, and atheist.  He co-edited a great encyclopaedia for France where the focus was to present knowledge as an organized whole, stressing the interconnections between the sciences.
[Commentary]:  

Diocletian, Gaius:  245-313 AD, Roman emperor who was responsible for a purge of Christian scriptures and severe persecution of Christians circa 298-313 AD,.

Diogenes:  412-323 BC Greek Founder of the Cynics.

Dionysius:  circa 500  AD, The pseudonym taken by a disciple of the neoplatonist philosopher Proclus who was converted to Christianity and whose writings have been regarded as the chief non-canonical but doctrinal authorities.  In his relation to contemporary controversy, the author appears as a moderate Chalcedonian, as conciliatory to the monophysites and as a leader of mystical asceticism: who subordinates its practice to ecclesiastical discipline.  His writings teach a way to enjoyment of the knowledge of God, based on the neoplatonist postulate of a power infused by God in the soul to that end, and culminating in the doctrine of perfection by ecstasy of an approach to God through moral purification and mental enlightenment.

Divination:  The act of obtaining information about unknown happenings or future events from supernatural sources by means of signs and occult technique.  Behind it lies the belief that the fortunes and destinies of earth are determined by the decrees of the eternal world and that human understanding is capable of comprehending divine thought through supernatural means.  A broad distinction may be made between artificial divination by astrology, lots, augury and the like, and, natural divination by dreams and prophetic oracles.  The early Christian controversialists accepted the supernatural inspiration of the pagan oracles, but explained that it came not from God, as it did to the Hebrew prophets and the saints, but from the Devil and his evil angels imitating the divine methods.
[Commentary]:  

Divine Right:  The doctrine asserting that kings (and all other legitimate rulers), because they derive their authority directly from God, are responsible to him alone and not also to their subjects, from whom they can claim unlimited obedience.
[Commentary]:  

Docetism:  The doctrine, developed before 200 AD,, that Christ's manhood and hence his sufferings were merely phantasmal or illusory.
[Commentary]:  

Dominic, (Saint):   1170-1221 AD, Spain, Founder of the Dominicans, friars of the ORDER OF PREACHERS, also known as "black Friars".  Since the 16th century the Dominicans have consistently claimed that their interpretation and development of the thought of Thomas Aquinas is alone the correct one.  Dominican thought is based on Christianized Aristotle, Thomism:, Scholasticism:.

Donatism:  A Christian sectarian movement in north Africa which theologically claims that the church must be kept holy by rigorous expulsion of sinners, that outside the one visible church sacraments are invalid, and that they are the one, true catholic church.
[Commentary]:  

Draco:  7th cent  BC   Greek  An Athenian lawgiver who was appointed to draw up a law-code for the disordered state, his law penalties have a tradition of severity and other such laws and measures are described as draconian.

Diabolism:  Dealings with, or belief in or worship of the Devil or devils.
[Commentary]:  

Druidism:  The religious and philosophical system of the Druids.
[Commentary]:  

Dualism:  A name given in philosophy to any theory which regards everything that there is as somehow two.  The theory may belong to either of two general types: either that there are only two things, i.e. only two genuine substances however many "things" in the ordinary sense there may appear to be; or that regardless of their ultimate number, all existing things fall into two categories, such as mind and matter, or derive from two principles, such as good and evil, or light and darkness (See Manichaeism), or the limited and the unlimited (early Pythagoreanism).  Dualism: in a looser sense, is a broad but not necessarily exhaustive division running through a philosophy, such as Plato's continued stressing of the division between the fluctuating world appearing to the senses and the eternal world of forms apprehended by the mind.  The distinction of the noumenal from the phenomenal world was a major feature of Kant's philosophy.  Many philosophers regard dualism: as merely a half-way house to monism: from pluralism.
[Commentary]:  

Dynamism:  The theory that force or energy, rather than mass or motion, is the basic principle of all phenomena.
[Commentary]:  

[E]

Ecclesiasticism: The proclivity to emphasize the church and its organization, clergy, rituals and customs.
[Commentary]:  In the community of truth believers, there is no formal organization nor clergy, rituals, old customs.

Eclectic:  Selecting from various systems, doctrines and sources.

Ecumenism:  The principles or practice of promoting cooperation or better understanding among differing religious faiths.
[Commentary]:  Good luck with that!

Eddy, Mary Baker:  1821-1910  AD, American

Edwards, Jonathan:  1703-1758  AD, American, Puritan Calvinist-Pietist.

Egalitarian:  Of, advocating or characterized  by the belief that all men should have equal political, social and economic rights.
[Commentary]:  

Ego:  1. The self; the individual as aware of himself.  2. Egotism:, conceit.  3. Philos. the self, variously conceived as a spiritual substance on which experience is superimposed, the series of acts and mental states introspectively recognized, etc.  4. Psycho. that part of the psyche which experiences the external world through the senses, organizes the thought processes rationally, and governs action; it mediates between the impulses of the id, the demands of the environment, and the standards of the superego.  

Egoism:  The doctrine that self-interest is the proper goal of all human actions and the view that every man chooses to do only what is in his own interest; alternately, that he ought only to act thus; or again that he is unable to act from any other motive than self-interest.  The word is sometimes used to denote a metaphysical system of subjective idealism:.  Opposed to altruism:.

Eleatic School:  The group of ancient Greek philosophers founded circa 540 BC and reputedly established by Xenophanes.  His unitary pantheism: and his repudiation of anthropomorphic conceptions of the Godhead may contain the germ of the Eleatic doctrine and have led Plato and Aristotle to class him with "partisans of the One"; but his title to be considered a philosopher has been disputed.  Parmenides, the real author of the school's doctrine, developed a rigid monism: in opposition to the teaching of Heraclitus and the Ionian cosmologists, as well as to contemporary Pythagoreanism, from which he may have seceded.  Denying all change, motion, diversity and vacuum on the ground of inconceivability, he insisted on the absolute unity, permanence and indestructibility of real being.  Zeno defended indirectly the doctrine of his master with great skill and subtlety against the Pythagoreans by demonstrating the contradictions inherent in their assumptions.  He invented the famous paradoxes about motion and other antinomies, and in his dialectic we see the beginnings of a science of logic.  Melissus argued in prose, and differed from Parmenides in maintaining the spatial infinity of being, as well as its eternity.  Despite Aristotle's poor opinion of his logical acumen Melissus was a far-sighted clear thinker, who saw in atomism: the only logical alternative to his corporeal monism:, thus pointing the way for Leucippus.
[Commentary]:

Eleaticism:  The theory, from the ancient Eleatic Greek school of philosophy, that the singular and unchangeable "Being" was the only reality and that plurality, change, and motion were only illusory.
[Commentary]: How does that help us to understand and deal with the human condition?

Elitism:  Government or control by an elite class.
[Commentary]:  

Electionism:  Theological system where election to salvation is the state of those for whom God has of his own will determined that they shall be saved.  The doctrine of original sin implies that all men are by nature liable to damnation.  But Christ's atoning death provided salvation for those that have faith in it; and, further, God has chosen those who shall have this saving faith.  Luther's emphasis on "justification by faith alone" derived from St. Augustine's election-doctrine based on St. Paul's teaching.  Calvin's systematic statement of the doctrine makes election to salvation unconditional and therefore not dependent, as Roman theology made it, on merit or "good works".  Thus election was received as a joyful and reassuring doctrine.  The identity and number of the elect being known to God alone, not all in the visible church are necessarily elect; nor are all outside it necessarily excluded.  Yet sincere faith in Christ, godly living and faithful fellowship with the church afford presumptive evidence of election.  Some statements of the doctrine have unduly stressed the logically correlative doctrine of reprobation for those not elect.  Against these, Arminian doctrine protests that salvation is offered by God to all and that all who accept in faith may be assured of it.
[Commentary]:

Ellis, Henry:  1859-1939   AD, Eng  Psychologist who in 1898 published the first volume of his Studies in the Psychology of Sex, and whose work had a profound influence on contemporary views about sex.

Elyot, Thomas:  1490-1546 AD,   English  Humanist who translated some of the classics and excerpted his most famous work from the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintillian, Plutarch and other classics.  He was the first Englishman to familiarize certain important concepts derived from the classics.  We owe to him such words as "liberty", "democracy", "aristocracy", "society", "loyalty", and "beneficence", all apparently coined for his moral teaching in The Governour.

Emerson, Ralph W.:  1803-1882  AD, American    Eventually the leader of the transcendental movement, he was carrying the "purifying" spirit of his forbears to its logical conclusion.  His essays and poems, taken together, mark the culmination of the romantic movement in the literature of the U.S.  In Carlyle he found a kindred spirit in search of the truth of the heart rather than the mind.  This purpose was succinctly stated in his first published volume, Nature, a testament to what he now thought to be the "first philosophy", which contains the seeds of his later writing.  Philosophically this book presents the essential doctrines of Concord Transcendentalism; substitution of the "Oversoul" for a personal god; exact correspondence of the moral and natural laws; freedom for the self-reliant individual to choose the enlightened way by exercise of his infallible intuition; and faith that the regeneration of the race can be best accomplished by self-culture rather than by social reconstruction.  A suspended dualism is at the core of his philosophical position, and only in his heart was his pragmatic acceptance of experience successfully reconciled to his romantic faith in goodness and unity on the plane of the ideal.
[Commentary]:

Empedocles:  493-433 BC   Greek Philosopher who supplied the first pluralistic "answer" to Parmenides, though he had Pythagorean affiliations.  Adopting Parmenides' sphere of being, uncreated and indestructible, and his denial of void (though not of motion), he fell back on an ultimate plurality of real substances in order to explain the world of sensible appearance.  He postulates four ultimate "roots" or "elements", fire, air, water and earth, qualitatively different but possessing the permanence and indestructibility of Parmenides" being; these mingle with each other in dives ways and in fixed proportions to produce the variety of compound bodies perceived by the senses.  Two additional mythical substances , love and strife, pictured as tenuous and mobile fluids, were the contrary motive forces which originated the changes in the four elemental masses.  Though his theory of the four elements was to form the basis of Aristotle's physical doctrine and thus to hold the field for centuries, His real importance lies in his detailed working-out of a theory of sense-perception by means of "effluences" which fitted the pores of the sense-organs and which, coupled with the principle of "like perceives like", explained our perception of objects.  His system was a halfway house to atomism.  It is probable that he envisaged an immortal part of the soul, with love and strife as its components, which survived the dissolution of the body, as the subject of innumerable rebirths, i.e. multiple reincarnation.
[Commentary]:

Empiricism:  The theory that experience is the only source of knowledge.  Meaning "practical experience", it was understood by Plato and other ancients to describe the status of those we should still call mere empirics, that is to say, unscientific practitioners who follow the rule of invalid methods and accumulate disconnected devices.
[Commentary]:

Energism:  In ethics, the view that the supreme good is activation of human powers rather than pleasure or happiness.
[Commentary]: The site position is that entirely backwards.

Engels, Friedrich:  1820-1895  AD, German  Partner of Karl Marx in developing the doctrines of Communism: and writing the Communist Manifesto.

Entelechy:  In Aristotelian philosophy , the actualization of potentiality or of true existence; in vitalism, the immanent force which controls and directs life and its development.

Epictetus:   1-2nd century Greek Stoic Philosopher who taught the duty of confining desire to what is attainable.
[Commentary]: Good luck with that, unless that is actually what the Creator has set up.

Epicurus:  341-270 BC Greek philosopher who founded the Epicurean school which for five to six centuries rivaled Stoicism in the Graeco-Roman world.
[Commentary]:

Epicurism:  The philosophy that the goal of man should be a life of calm pleasure regulated by morality, temperance, serenity, and cultural development.
[Commentary]: The site position is that with adding creativity, it is hard to argue with this

Epiphenomenalism:  The theory that mental or conscious processes simply accompany certain neural processes as epiphenomena.

Episcopalianism:  The theory or doctrine that the authority to govern a church rests in a body of bishops and not in any individual.
[Commentary]:

Equivocalism:    
[Commentary]:  

Epistemology:  The study or theory of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of knowledge.

Erasmus, Desider:  1466-1536 AD, Dutch . A Christian scholar who published the first Greek text NT. No man of letters has ever attained to anything approaching the influence wielded by Erasmus during his own century.  He rescued theology from the pedantries of the schoolmen and referred it to its original sources; he did more than anyone else to advance the revival of learning; he exposed the abuses of the church.
[Commentary]:

Eschatology:  Literally means the doctrine of the end, or of the last things.

Essenes:  A small puritanical sect of the Jews in which Angeology formed a prominent feature of their creed, and who became the forerunners of the Christian Gnostics and Jewish Cabbalists.

Essentialism:  The theory which stresses essence as opposed to existence.

Ethics: The philosophical examination of such concepts as good and bad, right and wrong, virtue and vice.

Eucharist:  The sacramental rite in which Christians partake of unleavened bread and wine, held in some sense to represent the body and blood of Christ.
[Commentary]:

Euclid:  3rd century BC Greek.  Alexandrian mathematician who produced the famous ten axioms.

Eugenics:  Means "dealing with good racial stock or offspring", and implies selective breeding programs or approaches for humans.
[Commentary]:

Eudaemonism: The system of ethics that considers the moral value of actions in terms of their ability to produce personal happiness.
[Commentary]:

Euhemerism:  The theory that the gods of mythology were deified human beings; theory that myths are based on traditional accounts of real people and events.
[Commentary]:

Eusebius of Ceas:  265-339 AD, Palestine Father of church history.

Evangelical:  Means "According to the Gospel".
[Commentary]: According to what or which "Gospel"?

Evangelicalism:  The set of Protestant doctrines that emphasize salvation by faith in the atonement of Jesus, and reject the efficacy of the sacraments and good works alone.
[Commentary]: The site position is that neither of these options are correct.

Evolutionism:  Any general theory that credits the unfolding of the universe and its life forms to time, chance or processes rather than to an intelligent creator; or that the creator relies on such processes.
[Commentary]: This has never made any sense in terms of the origin of life, but can selectively be applied to changes in its development.

Excommunication:   .
[Commentary]: Excommunication from the existing organizations can be a good thing.

Exegesis:  .
[Commentary]: Always appropriate.

Existentialism:  A philosophical movement based on the doctrine that existence takes precedence over essence and holds that man is totally free and responsible for his acts, and that this responsibility is the source of the dread and anguish that encompass man.
[Commentary]:

Experimentalism:  The theory or practice of depending on experimentation; empiricism.
[Commentary]:

Exorcism:  .
[Commentary]:

[F]

Faith:  .
[Commentary]:

Fascism:  A system of government characterized by rigid one-party dictatorship, forcible suppression of opposition, private economic enterprise under centralized government control, belligerent nationalism, racism:, and militarism.
[Commentary]:

Fideism:  The belief that faith alone is the basis of knowledge rather than reason.
[Commentary]: Entirely backwards!

Fraternalism:  The attitude and practice of brotherhood.
[Commentary]:

Fundamentalism:  Religious beliefs based on a literal interpretation of everything in the Bible, and regarded as fundamental to Christian faith and morals.
[Commentary]:

Fatalism:  .
[Commentary]:

Fechner, Gustav:  1801-1887 AD, German 

Feuerbach, Ludwig:  1804-1872 AD, German

Fichte, Johan G.:  1762-1814 AD, German

Flacius, Matthias:  1520-1575 AD,  Italy   

Formalist Math:  Mathematical approach that accepts proofs that logically demonstrate that a mathematical object has to exist even though the mathematical object is not constructed.  This is called an "existence proof".

Fortune-telling:  .
[Commentary]:

Fourier, Francois:  1772-1837 AD, French Socialist

Fox, George:  1624-1691 AD, English.

Foxe, John:  1516-1587 AD, English  Foxe's Book of Martyrs

Francis, (Saint):  1182-1226 AD, Italy, Born at Assisi

Frankel, Zacharias:  1801-1875  AD, Bohemia  He was the founder of what is known as historical Judaism, which combines full freedom of inquiry relating to the Jewish creed and past with an observance of Jewish religious practice as the product of the collective experience of the Jewish people.

Freud, Sigmund:  1856-1939 AD, Austria.

[G]

Galen:  Roman physician who first showed that the seat of the mind was the brain.
[Commentary]: An important step.

Galileo:  1564-1642  AD, Italy

Gandhi, Mohatma:  1869-1948 AD, Hindu.

Gestalt:  .       

Gnosticism:  A system of belief based on intuitive knowledge in spiritual matters combining ideas derived from Greek philosophy, Oriental mysticism:, and some aspects of Christ's teachings, stressing salvation through Gnosis.
[Commentary]:

Godel, Kurt:

Goethe, Johann W.:   1749-1832  AD, German.

Gomerism:  Opposite of Arminianism's five points such that: 1. Predestination is absolute, not conditional. 2. Christ died only for the elect. 3. Man is totally depraved and without free will in grace. 4. Grace is irresistible. 5. The elect cannot fall from grace.
[Commentary]:

[H]

Hammurabi:  18thcent BC   Babylon.

Hedonism:  The ethical doctrine that pleasure, variously conceived of in terms of happiness of the individual or of society, is the principal good and the proper aim of action   It now indicates unrestrained or unhealthy pleasure seeking.
[Commentary]:

Hegel, Georg W. F.:  1770-1831  AD, German.

Hegelianism:  The philosophy of Hegel, who held that every existent idea of fact belongs to an all-embracing mind in which each idea or situation (thesis)  evokes its opposite (antithesis) and these two result in a unified whole (synthesis), which in turn becomes a new thesis.
[Commentary]:

Heidegger, Martin:  1889-1976   AD, German

Helvetius, Claude:  1715-1771   AD, French

Henotheism:  Belief in or worship of one God without denying the existence of others.
[Commentary]:

Heraclitus:  6th cent  BC   Greek

Hermeneutics:  The science of translation and interpretation, esp. of Biblical exegesis.
[Commentary]: .

Herder, Johann G.:  1744-1803  AD, German.

Hesiod:  8th century  Greek.

Hesse, Herman:  1877-1962  AD, German influential author

Heterodox:  Departing from or opposed to the usual, majority or establishment beliefs, doctrines.
[Commentary]:

Heteroousian:  Designating, of, or holding the theory that God the father and God the son are different in substance.
[Commentary]: This is on; an issue in the false paradigm.

Hexaemeron:  The six day period of the creation or an account of this.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the six day period is entirely mythical.

Hierology:  The religious lore and literature of a people.

Higher Criticism:  The study of the authorship, dates of writing, meaning, etc., of the books of the Bible, using the techniques or findings of archaeology, literary criticism:, comparative religion, etc.
[Commentary]: Much of this has been helpful.

Hinduism:  The religion and social system of the Hindus, developed from Brahmanism with elements of Buddhism:, Jainism, etc., added.
[Commentary]:

Historicism:  theory of history that holds that the course of events is determined by unchangeable laws or cyclic patterns.
[Commentary]: Although there exist irregular cycles, this is largely just another form of mysticism.

Hobbism:  The philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, who held that a strong government, esp. an absolute monarchy, is necessary to control conflicting individual interests and desires.
[Commentary]:

Hippocrates:  460-377 BC Greek Physician

Hobbes, Thomas:  1588-1679 AD, English philosopher.

Holism:  The view that an organic or integrated whole has a reality greater than the sum of its parts.
[Commentary]: Indeed! This is an important concept.

Homiletics:  The branch of religion dealing with the writing and preaching of sermons.
[Commentary]: Appropriate for Madison Avenue or Hollywood, but not for Gospel believers.

Homoiousian:  Designating, of, or holding the theory that God the Father and God the Son are not identical, and yet are not different in substance.
[Commentary]:

Humanism:  Any system of thought or action based on the nature, dignity, interests, and ideals of Man; specifically, a modern, non-theistic rationalist movement that holds that man is capable of self-fulfillment, ethical conduct, etc. without recourse to supernaturalism.
[Commentary]: The site promotes the ultimate form of humanism!

Humanitarianism:  1. The doctrine that Man may perfect his own nature without divine aid. 2.  The doctrine that Jesus was of a human, not divine, nature.
[Commentary]:

Hume, David:  1711-1776   AD, Scot Empiricist philosopher.  Associated belief with the senses, rather than cognition or volition.
[Commentary]: Entirely backwards.

Huss, John:  1369-1415 AD, Bohemian Reformer

Husserl, Edmund:  Transcendental philosopher.

Hylozoism:  The doctrine that all matter has life, or that life is inseparable from matter.
[Commentary]: Nonsense that violates the principles of contrast and identity.

[I]

Iconoclast:  Lit. idol smasher. A person who attacks or ridicules traditional or venerated institutions or ideas regarded by him as erroneous or based on superstition.
[Commentary]:

IdPsychoanalysis, that part of the psyche which is regarded as the reservoir of the instinctual drives and the source of psychic energy; it is dominated by the pleasure principle and irrational wishing, and its impulses are controlled through the development of the ego and superego.
[Commentary]:

Idealism:  Any of various theories which hold that the objects of perception are actually: a) ideas which the mind knows directly and are not the objects themselves; b) manifestations of an independent realm of essences or forms that are unique and changeless.
[Commentary]:

Ideologism:  Being mainly occupied with ideas.
[Commentary]:

Illusionism:  The theory or doctrine that the material world exists only in illusive sense impressions.

Ignatius, Loyola:  1491-1556 AD, Spain.

Immanentism:  1. The theory that objects of knowledge are within the mind. 2. The doctrine that God pervades the universe.
[Commentary]:

Immaterialism:  The theory or doctrine that material things exist only as mental perceptions or ideas.
[Commentary]: Explain that to me after trying to run through a brick wall!

Incorporeal:  Not consisting of matter; without material body or substance.

Indeterminism:  The doctrine that the human will is free or to some extent free, or that one's actions and choices are not altogether determined by a sequence of causes independent of one's will.
[Commentary]: The human will is hardly free on the level of decisions, but can break free on the level of choice of what to believe.

Indifferentism:  The belief that all religions have equal validity; or systematic indifference to religion in general.
[Commentary]: Complete nonsense! The differences in religions can be as important as any other differences, even those in the material world.         fs

Individualism:  The doctrine that the state exists for the individual and not the individual for the state, and that individual freedom should not be restricted by regulation, and that self-interest is the proper goal of all human actions.  See Egoism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is generally true.

Infidel:  A person who does not believe in a particular religion, esp. the prevailing religion; a person who holds no particular religious belief.

Infralapsarian:  Any of a group of Calvinists who held that God's plan of salvation for some people followed and was a consequence of the fall of man from grace; opposed to Supralapsarian.

Infusionism:  The doctrine that the pre-existing human soul enters the body by divine infusion at conception or birth.  Opposed to Creationism and Traducianism.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the truth is closer to Traducianism.

Induction:  .

Inspiration:  A spiritual prompting of something written or said, or a motivating influence upon human beings, as that resulting in the writing of the literature or creating art or any other thing of merit.
[Commentary]:

Institutionalism:  A belief in the usefulness or sanctity of established institutions.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to defend this one.

Instrumentalism:  The pragmatic doctrine that ideas are plans for action serving as instruments for adjustment to the environment and that their validity is tested by their effectiveness.
[Commentary]: Seems to be essentially valid.

Intellectualism: The doctrine that knowledge comes wholly from pure reason, without aid from the senses; Rationalism.
[Commentary]: Nonsense.

Intuitionism:  The doctrine that all things are apprehended in their real nature through intuition; in ethics, the doctrine that the rightness of acts or fundamental moral principles are apprehended through intuition.
[Commentary]:

Intuitionist Math:  Mathematical approach that accepts proofs involving a mathematical object only if the mathematical object is actually constructed rather than logically proved to exist.  This is called "constructivist proof".

Irenics:  The doctrine or practice  of promoting peace among Christian churches in relation to theological differences.
[Commentary]: "I came not to bring peace, but fire and a sword!"

Irvingites:  Catholic Apostolic Church

Islam:  The Moslem religion, a monotheistic religion in which the supreme deity is Allah and the chief prophet and founder is Mohammed who espoused submission to the will of Allah as the ultimate answer and the way to salvation.
[Commentary]:

Isocracy:  A system of government in which all persons have equal power.
[Commentary]: The prevailing system in the unfallen universe.

Isonomy:  Equality of laws, rights and privileges.
[Commentary]: The prevailing system in the unfallen universe.

[J]

Jainism:  A Hindu religion founded in the 6th century B.C. resembling Buddhism: and emphasizing asceticism and reverence for all living things.
[Commentary]:

James, William:  1842-1910 AD, American, associated belief with the will, rather than feeling or cognition.
[Commentary]:

Jansenism:  The rigorous doctrines of Cornelius Jansen, who believed in predestination, denied free will, and held that man, though depraved in nature, is unable to resist the grace of God.
[Commentary]:

Jefferson, Thomas:  1743-1826 AD, American.
[Commentary]: The father of much of what is good in the Declaration and Constitution.

Josephus, Flavius:  37-100   AD, Jewish Historian
[Commentary]:

Judaism:  The Jewish religion, a monotheistic religion based on the laws and teachings of the Torah, Prophets and literature of the OT scriptures and the Talmud.
[Commentary]:

Justification:  The act by which a sinner is freed through faith from the penalty of his sin, and is accepted by God as righteous.
[Commentary]: Pure misguided make-believe!

Jung, Carl G.:  1873-1961 AD, Swiss

Juvenal:  60-140   AD, Rome

[K]

Kant, Immanuel:  1724-1804  AD, German

Kantianism: The philosophy of Kant, who held that the content of knowledge comes a posteriori from sense perception, but that its form is determined by a priori categories of the mind; he also declared that God, freedom, and immortality cannot be proved or denied by empirical knowledge though they are implied by rational morality.
[Commentary]:

Karma:  In Buddhism and Hinduism, the totality of a person's actions in any one of the successive states of his existence, thought of as determining his fate in the next; fate, destiny.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we should be more concerned about what we believe than our actions.

Kenosis:  Jesus' humbling himself by taking on the form of man.
[Commentary]: Total misguided nonsense! He was always and ever totally and only human.

Kerygma:  Preaching of the gospel, or emphasis on it in preaching.
[Commentary]: The true Gospel can never be effectively preached but only shared with someone seeking.

Kierkegaard, Soren:  1813-1855 AD, Danish

Knox, John:  1505-1572  AD, Scot Reformer

[L]

Laicism:  Policy and principles opposing clericalism; restricting political influence and power to the laity.
[Commentary]: If there is no clergy, the term laity loses its meaning.

Lamaism:  A form of Tibetan Buddhism practiced in Tibet and Mongolia, characterized by elaborate ritual and a strong hierarchal organization.
[Commentary]: The Dalai Lama I met knew that this was all a concession to the unenlightened.

Lao-tse:  604-531 BC, China

Lapsarianism:  The doctrine of and the belief in the fall of mankind from grace or perfection.
[Commentary]:

Latitudinarianism:  The approach to religion that permits liberal views, free thinking and toleration of differing opinions.
[Commentary]: All well and good.

Legalism:  Strict and literal adherence to law or to a code; the belief in the efficacy of such.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this approach should be thoroughly discredited. God operates through principles and values, not rules and law.

Liberalism:  A movement in Protestantism: advocating a broad interpretation of the Bible, and freedom from rigid doctrine and authoritarianism:, etc.
[Commentary]: Since the Old Testament is the mythology of the Hebrew culture, and the New Testament was composed by those that did NOT understand, the point is moot.

Literalism:  The tendency to take words and statements in their literal sense.

Logical Positivism:  A movement in philosophy which tests all statements by reference to experience or the structure of language and is concerned with the unification of the sciences through a common logical language; also called logical empiricism.
[Commentary]:

Leibniz, G. Wilhelm: 1646-1716  AD, German.

Lenin, Vladimir:  1870-1924  AD, Russian

Locke, John:  1632-1704  AD, English, associated belief with the cognitive rather than feeling or volition.

Logical-Empiricism:  Also called logical-positivism:, it is the attempt to separate scientific knowledge from other knowledge, such as metaphysics, theology, literature, knowledge deemed to be somewhat meaningless.  It is really a radically idealistic program promoting perfectibility in scientific knowledge.  Promoted by Rudolf Carnap of the Vienna School of Philosophy.
[Commentary]: Hugely misguided!

Lucretius:  96-55 BC , Roman.

Luther, Martin:  1483-1546 AD, German Reformer
[Commentary]: Luther's thinking was largely a political reaction AGAINST Popery and Catholicism, not a careful, intellectually responsible, philosophical starting over.

[M]

Macumba:  A religious cult in Brazil, combining voodoo with elements of Christianity.
[Commentary]: Wonderful! NOT!

Mahayama:  A branch of Buddhism: that stresses idealism:, disinterested love, relief of the suffering of others, etc.; it developed mainly in China, Korea and Japan.

Mandean:  A member of, or relating to an ancient Gnostic sect still extant in southern Iraq.

Manichaeism:  A religious philosophy taught from the 3rd century to the 7th A.D. by the Persian Manichaeus and his followers, combining Zoroastrianism, Gnostic, Christian and pagan elements, and based on the doctrine of the two contending principles of good (light, God, the soul) and evil (darkness, Satan, the body).
[Commentary]: A misguided mishmash of mythical or false elements,

Marist:  Of or dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
[Commentary]: Mary should be honored for being the willing mother, but for nothing else.

Machiavelli, N.:  1469-1527  AD, Italy

Magnus, Albertus:  1206-1280 AD, German  Dominican teacher, founder of Christian Aristotelianism.

Maimonides, Moses:  1135-1204 AD, Spanish Jew

Manichaean Dualism:  .
[Commentary]:

Mann, Horace:  1796-1859 AD, American

Maritain, Jacques:  1882-1973  AD, French

Marx, Karl:  1818-1883  AD, German philosopher and revolutionary.

Maslow, Abraham:  .
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.
    5 stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Stage 1: The biological and physiological stage Stage 2: The Safety Stage Stage 3: The Love/Belonging Stage Stage 4: The Esteem Stage Stage 5: The Self-actualization Stage

Materialism:  .
[Commentary]:

Mazdaism:  Same as Zoroastrianism.
[Commentary]:

Mechanism:  The theory that all phenomena of the universe, particularly life, can be explained by physics and chemistry.
[Commentary]: Complete reductionist nonsense!

Meliorism:  The belief that the world tends naturally to get better and especially that this tendency can be furthered by human effort.
[Commentary]: This would seem to be an ignorant denial of reality.

Mennonite:  Any member of an evangelical Protestant sect founded in Friesland in the 16th cent. A.D.  They oppose the taking of oaths, infant baptism:, military service and the acceptance of public office, and favor plain dress and living.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is all seriously misguided, and does NOTHING to further the human condition.

Mentalism:  .
[Commentary]:

Meritocracy:  An intellectual elite, based on academic achievement.

Metaphysics:  The branch of philosophy that deals with first principles to explain the nature of being or reality (Ontology) and of the origin and structure of the world (Cosmology); it is closely associated with the study of the nature of knowledge (Epistemology)

Metempsychosis:  The supposed passing of the soul or psyche at death into another body, either human or animal; transmigration.
[Commentary]: Mystical rubbish!

Methodism:  Excessive adherence to systematic procedure or method.
[Commentary]: An approach for androids, not creative humans.

Metaphysics:  .
[Commentary]:

Mill, John Stuart:  1806-1873  AD, English

Millenarianism:  .
[Commentary]:

Mithraism:  The ancient Persian religion based on the worship of Mithras, the God of light and truth.
[Commentary]: Christianity has bee significantly contaminated with Mithraism.

Modernism: A movement attempting to redefine Biblical and Christian dogma and traditional teachings in the light of modern science, historical research, etc.

Mohammed:  570-632 AD, Arab

Monachism

Monadism:  The theory that the universe consists of monads, simple and indivisible units.  See Atomism.

Monism:  The doctrine that there is only one ultimate substance or principle, whether mind (idealism:), matter (materialism:), or some third thing that is the basis of both; the doctrine that reality is an organic whole without independent parts.
[Commentary]: The site position is that no parts are completely independent.

Monogenism:  The doctrine that all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors.
[Commentary]: Maybe this is true in terms of going back to the Creator, but is NOT true as it relates to the myth of Adam and Eve in the Edenic Garden.

Monophysitism:  The doctrine that Christ had but one nature or a composite one of both the human and the divine, a tenet held by the Coptic Christians. .
[Commentary]:

Monotheism:  The doctrine that there is only one God. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is only one ORIGINAL Creator, but a multitude of human children Gods, and that the power is invested in the collective consciousness, which is called the Father.

Moralism:  Belief in or practice of a system of ethics apart from formalized religion. .
[Commentary]: This is necessarily part of the valid definition of a religion.

Montesquieu, Baron:  1689-1755 AD, French.

Morphism:  . .
[Commentary]:

Morphogenesis:  . .
[Commentary]:

Mysticism:  The doctrine that it is possible to achieve communion with God through contemplation and love without the medium of human reason. Any doctrine that asserts the possibility of attaining knowledge of spiritual truths through intuition acquired by fixed meditation. Vague, obscure, or confused thinking or belief. .
[Commentary]:

[N]

Nativism:  The doctrine of innate ideas.

Naturalism:  In philosophy, the belief that the natural world, known and experienced scientifically, is all that exists and that there is no supernatural or spiritual creation, control, or significance.  In theology, the doctrine that religion does not depend on supernatural experience, divine revelation, etc., and that all religious truth may be derived from the natural world. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is denied by the revelation and demonstration of Jesus.

Natural Theology:  Theology that is based on observations of natural processes and not on divine or direct revelation. .
[Commentary]: There is certainly a place for this in our thinking, but if this were adequate, the Creator would not have had t risk coming to earth and being rejected and crucified.

Neoplatonism:  . .
[Commentary]:

Neoscholasticism:  A philosophical system based on scholasticism: but incorporating new elements, particularly emphasis on the discoveries of science and on research, to make it applicable to contemporary life. .
[Commentary]:

Nestorianism:  The doctrine that the divine and the human existed as two distinct natures in Jesus. .
[Commentary]: Unreasonable nonsense!

Newman, John H.:  1801-1890  AD, English

Newton, Isaac:  1642-1727  AD, English

Nicene Creed:  A confession of faith for Christians adopted at the first Nicene Council 325 A.D., and later expanded to various forms accepted by most Christian denominations. .
[Commentary]: Largely misguided. See Nicene Creed

Nicholas of Cusa:  1401-1464  AD, German.

Niebuhr, Reinhold:  1892-1971 AD, American theologian

Nietzsche, F. W.:   1844-1900 AD, German. Recognized as one of the most influential philosophers, he gave it hard and fast, and was the true father of the God-is-dead movement. .
[Commentary]:

Nihilism:  The denial of the existence of any basis for knowledge or truth, and therefore also meaning. .
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is a self-disconfirming foundation for total intellectual irresponsibility.

Nirvana:  In Hinduism, a blowing out, or extinction, of the flame of life through reunion with Brahma. In Buddhism, the state of perfect blessedness achieved by the absorption of the soul into the supreme spirit, or by the extinction of all desires and passions. .
[Commentary]:

Nominalism:  A doctrine of the Middle Ages that all universal or abstract terms are mere necessities of thought or conveniences of language and therefore exist as names only and have no general realities corresponding to them. .
[Commentary]:

Nomism:  The basing of conduct upon adherence to any fiat, religious law based on holy scripture. .
[Commentary]: See Legalism.

Noumenon:  In Kantian philosophy, an object reached by intellectual intuition, without the aid of the senses; Opposed to phenomenalism.

Noumenalism:  The doctrine maintaining the existence of noumena. .
[Commentary]:

Nostradamus:  1503-1566 AD, French.

Novationism:  The doctrine of a substituted new obligation or contract for an old one by the mutual agreement of all parties concerned. .
[Commentary]:

Numerology:  A system of occultism built around numbers; divination by numbers. .
[Commentary]:

[O]

Objectivism:  The name given to the philosophy of Ayn Rand, it is based on the idea that only living creatures face a fundamental alternative, that of life or death.  "Where no alternative exists, no goals and no values are possible."  It is the existence of the alternative that enables goal-directed action, and the objective requirements of sustaining life as the ultimate end (purpose) that gives rise to (objective) values–values defensible in terms of their life-sustaining service. .
[Commentary]:

Obscurantism:  Opposition to human progress or enlightenment, making things obscure. .
[Commentary]:

Occasionalism:  The doctrine that mind and matter cannot interact and that God intervenes in each instance where an act of mind is coordinated with a movement of the body. .
[Commentary]:

Occultism:  Belief in hidden, secret, mysterious, esoteric forces and powers beyond human understanding. .
[Commentary]:

Occam or William of Ockham:  1287 – 1347 AD. An English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian. Occam's razor is the methodological principle that bears his name. His theological position was,"God has freely chosen to create a world and establish a way of salvation within it apart from any necessary laws that human logic or rationality can uncover".
[Commentary]: His methodological principle is of limited value, and the site author can't find any reason to take his thinking seriously.

Occultism:  .
[Commentary]:

Omnipotent:  All powerful or having all the power. Omni does NOT mean infinite, .
[Commentary]:

Omnipresent:  Always, everywhere present.

Omniscient:  All knowing or having all knowledge. Does NOT imply knowledge of a future that hasn't been created yet.

Ontic:  Having the status of real and ultimate existence.

Ontological Argument:  An a priori argument for the existence of God, asserting that the conception of a perfect being implies that being's existence outside man's mind. .
[Commentary]: One of the seemingly valid supporting arguments.

Ontology:  The Branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being, reality or ultimate substance.

Operationalism:  The view that concepts or terms of purportedly factual statements must be definable in terms of identifiable and repeatable activities, experimental performances, etc., it is the basis for the scientific method. .
[Commentary]: A seemingly valid way of thinking.

Opportunism:  The practice of policy of adapting one's actions, judgments, etc., to circumstances in order to further one's immediate interests, usually without regard for basic principles or eventual consequences. .
[Commentary]: It is overly aggressive opportunism that is objectionable.

Optimism:  The doctrine held by Leibniz and others that the existing world is the best possible; or, the doctrine that good ultimately prevails over evil. .
[Commentary]: Maybe more difficult than Pessimism, but better.

Organon:  A system of principles used in investigation.

Original Sin:  In Christendom, the first Sin of Adam held to have introduced the overpowering tendency to sin in mankind. .
[Commentary]: Extant ideas about original sin are just based on Edenic myth

Orthodox:  Literally right opinion, conforming to the accepted or established beliefs and doctrines. .
[Commentary]: It is ironic the "orthodox", now represent an almost completely false set of beliefs.

Ortega y Gasset:  1883-1955 AD, Spain.

Osiander:  .

Ovid:  43 BC-17 AD,  Rome.

[P]

Pacifism:  Opposition to the use of force under any circumstances. .
[Commentary]: A license for defeat and victimhood from the ruthless.

Paganism:  Polytheistic religion from the perspective of monotheistic religions. .
[Commentary]:

Pandemonium: The posited abode of all demons.
[Commentary]: Colorful, fantasy and myth.

Pansophism:  Pretension to universal wisdom or knowledge. .
[Commentary]: This is a valid and worthy goal.

Pantheism:  The doctrine that God is not a person, but that all laws, forces, manifestations, etc. of the self-existing universe are God. .
[Commentary]:

Pantheon:  The entire set of planet gods in the heavens.

Papist:  A person who believes in papal supremacy.
[Commentary]:

Paraclete:  A powerful and capable advocate, protector, intercessor or comforter.
[Commentary]: See Paraclete

Paradigm:  A necessary foundational pattern, framework, example or model; essentially a structure for organizing knowledge for integration leading to meaningful understandings.

Parallelism:  The theory that mind and matter, though independent, function together in a parallel, but without an interactive causal relationship.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is meaningless because we have overwhelming evidence that the influence and thus interact.

Paralogism:  A discourse, reason or reasoning contrary to or inconsistent with logic; a faulty argument.

Parousia:  The Greek word which means the coming out, the blossoming forth, the coming into public prominence, being put on full display or the coming into glory.
[Commentary]: See Parousia

Particularism:  The Calvinistic doctrine that redemption is possible only for particular persons.
[Commentary]:

Pascal, Blaise:  1623-1662 AD, French.

Paternalism:  The system of governing or controlling a country, group, or employees in a manner suggesting a father's relationship with his children.
[Commentary]: The problem is that paternalism often devolves into dictatorship.

Patriarchy:  A form of social organization in which the father or eldest male is recognized as the head of the family or tribe; political structure run or dominated by men.

Patristic:  Of the early leaders, or fathers, of the Christian church or the writings and doctrines attributed to them.

Pelagianism:  The belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special Divine aid.
[Commentary]: A misguided sideshow based on a misunderstanding of Sin.

Pentecostal:  Any of various Protestant fundamental sects stressing direct quasi-tangible inspiration by the Holy Spirit.
[Commentary]: It is the position of the site that this is misguided confusion of naturally aroused excitement, and is worthless for spiritual growth and healing the human condition.

Perfectionism:  Any doctrine that holds that moral, religious, or social perfection can and should be attained in this life.
[Commentary]: Acceptable as long as perfection is understood as maturity of purpose, values and principles.

Personalism:  Any doctrine or movement that emphasizes the rights, priority, centrality or sovereignty of the individual.
[Commentary]: The site author embraces this thinking.

Pessimism:  The doctrine or belief that the existing world is the worst possible; or, the doctrine or belief that the evil in life overshadows or outweighs the good.
[Commentary]: Every individual should make that determination for themselves.

Phenomenalism:  The theory that knowledge is limited to phenomena, either because there is no reality beyond phenomena or because such reality is unknowable.
[Commentary]: The site position is not in agreement with this.

Philo of Alexandria:
[Commentary]:

Philosophy:  Love of, or the search for, wisdom and knowledge.  Theory or logical and reasonable analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, life and the nature of both Man and the universe; including ethics, aesthetics, logic, epistemology, metaphysics, etc.
[Commentary]: One can't be intellectually responsible without being interested in philosophy.

Physicalism:  The theory that all referential terms in scientific or meaningful statements are reducible to terms connected with physical objects or events, or with their properties.
[Commentary]: Misguided, reductionist nonsense.

Pietism: A system that stresses the devotional ideal in religion, originally Lutheran.
[Commentary]:

Plato:  427-347 BC, Greek philosopher following Socrates
[Commentary]:

Platonism:  The doctrine holding that objects of perception are real insofar as they imitate essences, ideas, or logical forms which constitute the world of essential reality. See idealism.
[Commentary]:

Pliny the Elder:  23-79 AD, Roman

Pluralism:  The theory that reality is composed of a multiplicity of ultimate beings, principles, or substances; the theory that ultimate reality has more than one explanation. See Dualism.
[Commentary]:

Plutarch:  46-120   AD, Greek

Polytheism:  Belief in or worship of more than one god. Originally based on the pantheon of planet or sun gods.
[Commentary]:

Popper, Karl:  1902 – 1994 AD. Austrian-British philosopher and professor generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century. Famous for favoring empirical falsification for the scientific method over inductive justification.
[Commentary]: One of the brighter lights in some areas of modern philosophy.

Porphyry:  234 – c. 305 AD. A Neoplatonic philosopher, born in Tyre, who accepted Jesus as an outstanding and pious philosopher but attacked Christianity without attacking Jesus.
[Commentary]: This stance parallels part of the site stance.

Positivism:  A system of philosophy originated by Auguste Comte basing knowledge solely on sensory perception or observable, scientific facts and their relations to each other; it rejects speculation about or search for ultimate origins.
[Commentary]: An inadequate, reductionist approach.

Pragmatism:  A method or tendency in philosophy which determines the meaning and truth of all concepts and tests their validity by their practical results.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to argue against this.

Predestination:  The theological doctrine that God foreordained everything that would happen; also, God predestines certain souls to salvation and, esp. in Calvinism:, others to damnation.
[Commentary]: This doctrine makes God despicable, and it is one of the most insidious doctrines that is widely accepted by Christians in spite of the fact that even the Bible doesn't teach this. It makes a mockery of human volition and free will.

Presentationism:  The epistemological theory that in perception the mind is directly aware of an external object without any intervening medium.
[Commentary]:

Probabilism:  The doctrine that certainty in knowledge is impossible and that probability is a sufficient basis for action and belief. The theory that moral law does not bind in cases where it is doubtful, and that it may be considered doubtful if accredited theologians have denied that it binds in particular cases.
[Commentary]: We hold our knowledge and judgment because it is beyond a reasonable doubt.

Prophecy:  Any information or a prediction of the future given under divine influence.
[Commentary]:

Protagoras:  481-411 BC,  Greek

Proudhon, Pierre J.: 1809-1865 AD, French
Psyche 1. The human soul.  2. The mind; esp., Psychiatry the mind considered as a subjectively perceived, functional entity, based ultimately upon physical processes but with complex processes of its own: it governs the total organism: and its interactions with the environment.
[Commentary]:

Psychoanalysis:  A method, developed by Freud, Rank, Jung and others, of investigating mental processes and of treating neuroses and some other disorders of the mind based on the assumption that such disorders are the result of the rejection by the conscious mind of factors that then persist, causing conflicts which may be resolved or diminished by discovering and analyzing the repressions and bringing them into consciousness through various techniques.
[Commentary]:

Psychology:  The science dealing with the mind and mental and emotional processes, patterns and behavior.
[Commentary]:

Ptolemy:  2nd century  Greek Astronomer
[Commentary]:

Puritanism:  An approach to life that is extremely or excessively strict in matters of morals and religion.
[Commentary]:

Pythagoras:  ?-497   BC   Greek

Pythagoreanism:  The philosophy of Pythagoras, the main tenets of which were the transmigration of the soul and the belief in numbers as the ultimate elements of the universe.
[Commentary]: Largely mystical nonsens!

[Q]:

Quietism:  A form of religious mysticism: that involves extinction of the human will, withdrawal from worldly concerns, and passive contemplation of God and divine things.
[Commentary]: A negation of much of what it is to be human.

[R]

Rand, Ayn

Rank, Otto

Rationalism:  In philosophy, the doctrine that knowledge comes wholly from pure reason, without aid from the senses; Intellectualism. In theology, the doctrine that rejects revelation and the supernatural, and makes reason the sole source for religious truth.
[Commentary]:

Realism:  The doctrine that universals or abstract terms are objectively actual; the doctrine that material objects exist in themselves, apart from the mind's consciousness of them; opposed to nominalism.
[Commentary]:

Reconstructionism:  A 20th century. movement in Judaism: that stresses a dynamic creativity in adjusting to modern times.
[Commentary]:

Reductionism:  Any usually unjustified method or theory that reduces integrated information, structures, processes, or statements to seeming equivalents that are less complex, developed or of a lower order.
[Commentary]:

Reify, reification:  To treat a spiritual (non-material) reality as substantially existing, or as a concrete material object having physical properties.
[Commentary]:

Representationalism:  The theory that the mind apprehends external objects only through the medium of percepts or ideas.
[Commentary]:

Resistentialism: The theory or doctrine that the Universe is set up so that toast with marmalade will tend to fall with the marmalade side up onto cheap carpet and that side down on expensive carpet.
[Commentary]:

RevelationTheol., God's disclosure, unveiling or manifestation to man of himself, his character and will, or foundational truth.
[Commentary]: The apocalypse or revelation was actually a real-life, public demonstration that unfolded over a period of about 3 years, and ending with a crucifixion and resurrection.

Revisionist:  A person who revises, or favors revising, some widely accepted theory or doctrine.
[Commentary]: There is an important revisionist movement taking place now in AD or C.E. Chronology.

Ritualism:  The observance and use of ritual; an excessive devotion to ritual.
[Commentary]: Any valid ritual would be developed spontaneously by a contemporary group, not some ancient ritual developed by people unknown.

Rosicrucians:  .
[Commentary]:

Russell, Bertrand:  1872-1970  AD, English

[S]

Sabbatarian:  Pertaining to the doctrine of observing one day a week as a religious holy or rest day.
[Commentary]: The site position is that all such sacred days were devoted to a false god.

Sacramentalism:  Belief in the efficacy of the sacraments or that they are necessary to salvation.
[Commentary]: Complete moronic, mystical nonsense!

Sade, Marquis de:  1740-1814 AD, French

Santayana, George:  1863-1952 AD, American.

Sappho:  7th century BC Greek poet

Sartre, Jean Paul: 1905-1980 AD, French philosopher that contributed to existential philosophy.

Satanism:  Satan or devil worship, esp. observing rites that debase Christian ceremonies.

Saturnian:  Identified with Molech, Greek Kronos or Roman god Saturn, whose reign was called "the golden age"; prosperous, peaceful, contented Edenic.

Savonarola, G.:  1452-1498 AD, Italy

Scholasticism:  A system of logic, philosophy, and theology of medieval university scholars based upon Aristotelian logic and the writings of the early Christian fathers and the authority of tradition and dogma.

Schopenhauer, Arthur: 1788-1860  AD, German

Schweitzer, Albert:  1875-1965   AD, French

Scientism:  The principle that scientific methods can and should be applied in all fields of investigation. Treating science and its findings as the ultimate religion, one that trumps all other ways of thinking or approaches to the truth.
[Commentary]:

Secularism:  A system of doctrines and practices that disregards or rejects any form of deistic or theistic religious faith and worship; or, the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state or public education.
[Commentary]:

Semiotic:  A general theory of signs and symbols; esp. the analysis of the nature and relationships of signs in language, including three branches: syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.
[Commentary]:

Seneca, Lucius:  4 BC-65 AD, Rome

Sensationalism: The belief that all knowledge is acquired through the senses.
[Commentary]: Even if true, so what?

Sensualism:  The system of ethics which holds that the pleasure of the senses constitute the greatest good.
[Commentary]: An imbalanced, reductionist  ideology, because spiritual (intellectual, psychological, emotional, etc., satisfaction or please are probably MORE important.

Shamanism:  The religion of certain peoples based on a belief in good and evil spirits who can be influenced only by the shamans.
[Commentary]: Just another weird, deformed belief system that reduces individual value, sovereignty and responsibility.

Shaw, George B.:  1856-1950  AD, English.

Shintoism:  A principle religion of Japan, prior to Japan's losing the war in 1945; a state religion, with emphasis upon the worship of nature, ancestors, ancient heroes and the divine emperor.
[Commentary]: What Good is a religion if it ultimately doesn't bring you success? When Japan was soundly defeated in WWII, Shintoism lost its hold on the Japanese people, and has now been reduces to just a cultural feature.

Skepticism:  The philosophical doctrine that the truth of all knowledge must always be in question and that inquiry must be a process of doubting.
[Commentary]: The site position is that a healthy skepticism is a kind of Paraclete. See Paraclete.

Snow, C. P.:  1905-1980 AD, English

Socinianism:  The theological doctrines of Faustus Socinus, denying the divinity of Jesus, the Trinity, etc., and explaining sin and salvation rationalistically.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the paradigm of the Gospel makes most of this moot.

Sociobiology:  A simplistic, reductionist field of thinking that tries to explain the myriad aspects of life in terms of the "Selfish Gene".
[Commentary]: Severely reductionist approach that is demeaning to the nobility of humans.

Socrates:  470-399 BC, Greek.

Solipsism:  The theory that the self can know nothing with certainty beyond its own existence, and be aware of nothing but its own experience and states; or, that every experience could be an illusion or internally self-generated dream, or, the theory that nothing exists or is real but the self.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is no logical way of refuting this paradigm, but that you can choose to believe something better.

Solomon:  10th century BC  Israel

Solon:  638-559 BC  Athens

Soteriology:  Salvation or the study of salvation.

Spencer, Herbert:  1820-1903 AD, English

Spinoza, Baruch:  1632-1677 AD, Dutch

Spinozism:  The philosophy of Spinoza, who taught that there is but one infinite substance, God (or Nature), having infinite attributes of which only thought and extension are knowable.
[Commentary]: Spinoza challenged a lot of traditional shibboleths, but the above concept is unworthy of him.

Spiritualism:  1. The belief that the dead survive as spirits which can communicate with the living.  2. The philosophical doctrine that all reality is in essence spiritual; idealism.
[Commentary]:  Superstition and misunderstanding.

Stoicism:  The philosophy founded by Zeno about 308 B.C., holding that all things, properties, relations, etc. are governed by unvarying natural laws, and that the wise man should follow virtue alone, obtained through reason, remaining indifferent to the external world and to passion or emotion.

Structuralism:  A movement emphasizing determining and analyzing the basic, relatively stable structural elements of a system, esp. in the behavioral sciences.

Subjectivism:  1. The phil. theory that all knowledge is subjective and relative, never objective  2. any phil. theory that restricts knowledge in some way to the subjective elements, as by limiting external reality to only what can be known or inferred by subjective standards of truth.
[Commentary]: There may be a lot of truth to this, but so what?

Subordinationism:  .
[Commentary]:

Substance:  The real or essential part or element of anything, i.e., something that hasbunique, independent existence and is acted upon by causes or events.
[Commentary]:

Substantialism:  The doctrine that there are entities or beings underlying all phenomena as the subjects in which various properties inhere.
[Commentary]:

Superego:  In psychoanalytical philosophy and Psychoanalysis, that part of the psyche which is critical of the self or ego and enforces moral standards: at an unconscious level it blocks unacceptable impulses of the id.
[Commentary]:

Supernaturalism:  Belief that some supernatural, or divine (existing or occurring outside the normal experience or knowledge of man), force controls nature and the universe.
[Commentary]: The site position is that nature seems to unfold according to natural laws.

Superstition:  Any belief or attitude, usually based on fear and/or ignorance, that is inconsistent with the known laws of science or with what is generally considered in the particular society as true and rational.
[Commentary]:

Supralapsarianism:  The view that God decreed the election of some to salvation and the rest to damnation and thereafter decreed the fall of man through the sin of disobedience. Any of a group of Calvinist Christians who hold that God's plan of salvation for some people preceded the fall of man from grace, which had been predestined or determined.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is unworthy, misguided thinking.

SutraHindu, a precept or maxim.  Buddhism, a scriptural narrative, esp. an account of a dialogue or sermon of the Buddha.

Syllogism:  An argument or form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion drawn from them; reasoning from the general to the particular.

Syncretism:  The combination or reconciliation of differing beliefs or practices in religion, philosophy, etc., or an attempt to effect such compromise.
[Commentary]:

Synoptic:  Lit. same-vision, giving an account from the same point of view.

Synthesis:  Deductive reasoning, or more common, in Hegelian philosophy, the unified whole in which opposites (thesis and antithesis) are reconciled.
[Commentary]: The site position is that what is needed is a complete bringing together of all relevant knowledge to synthesize the truth about God, reality, and ourslelves.

Swedenborg, Emanuel: 1688-1772    AD, Swede

[T]

Taine, Hippolyte:  1828-1893  AD, French

Taoism: A Chinese religion and philosophy based on the teachings of Lao-Tse and advocating logic and reasoning, simplicity, selflessness, etc.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it was actually one of the more enlightened and successful religious systems in the history of the world, and it made China great for a while.

Teleology:  The study of final causes or ultimate purpose.

Textualism:  Strict adherence to the text, esp. the Bible scriptures.

Thales:  640-546 BC  Greek

Theanthropism: The attributing of human characteristics to God or a god; the doctrine of the union of divine and human natures in Jesus.

Theism: Belief in one God who is creator and ruler of the universe and known by a special, more direct revelation than what can be inferred from nature. Contrast Deism.
[Commentary]:

Theocracy:  The rule of a state by God or God-appointed agency.
[Commentary]: In our fallen world, this ALWAYS become corrupt and oppressive.

Theodicy:  A system of natural theology aimed at seeking to vindicate divine justice in allowing evil to exist.
[Commentary]: The site position is that evil exists because of the ethos of freedom and liberty, and it can ONLY be expunged by a unified inspirational vision and understanding.

Theology:  The study of God and the relations between God and the universe; a specific form of this study.

Theophany:  A visible, audible or tangible appearance of God or a god to man.

Theosophy:  Any of various philosophies or religious systems that propose to establish direct, mystical contact with divine principle through contemplation, revelation, etc.
[Commentary]:

Theurgy:  Supposed divine or supernatural intervention in human affairs.

Thomism:  It has the fundamental thesis that natural and revealed truth form a single whole to which the human mind can attain with certainty by its natural and supernatural powers.
[Commentary]: The site doesn't disagree with this tenet.

Thoreau, Henry:  1817-1862 AD, American.

Totalitarianism: A government or state in which one political force maintains complete control under a dictatorship and bans all others.

Traditionalism:  The doctrine that the only valid religious belief is that handed down by tradition from an original divine revelation.
[Commentary]: A formula for being stuck in falsity forever.

Traducianism:  The theological doctrine that God is not involved in the creation of a newborn soul, which, excluding outside influential factors, is inherited from the parents; opposed to Creationism and Infusionism.
[Commentary]: This is the position of the site.

Transcendentalism:  A pure science of the ego examined introspectively, a philosophical outlook brought to its highest formulation by Edmund Husserl who maintained the outlook that there is a "first philosophy that could be grasped by introspective intuition into the transcendental structure of consciousness–the very ground of being. Any of various philosophies that propose to discover the nature of reality by investigating the process of thought rather than the objects of sense experience.
[Commentary]: The site position is that we need both.

Transubstantiation:  In Christendom, the doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the whole substances of the bread and of the wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ.
[Commentary]: this is gross, hypocritical, meaningless nonsense,

Tritheism:  The doctrine that the Christian Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three distinct persons or god entities; belief in three gods.
[Commentary]: The site position is that the Father is the corporate or collective consciousness of all unfallen humans, and the Holy Spirit is the totality of their purpose, values and characters. This doesn't leave Jesus alone, but with a myriad of his peers in a truly unified democratic society.

Tyndale, William:  1492-1536  AD, English Reformer

[U]

Uniformatarianism:  The doctrine that all geologic changes may be explained by existing physical and chemical processes that have operated in essentially the same way throughout geologic time; denies astral catastrophe.
[Commentary]: The site author unabashedly denies uniformitarianism and accepts astral catastrophe and electric discharge scarring for the vast majority of geologic features.

Unitarianism:  The system of belief that denies the doctrine of the Trinity, accepting the moral teaching, but rejecting the divinity, of Jesus, and holding that God exists in only one person.
[Commentary]: The site thinking denies the trinity of persons, but accepts the moral teaching and divinity of Jesus, and conceives of the Father as the collective of all unfallen humans.

Universalism:  The theological doctrine that all souls will eventually find salvation in the grace of God.
[Commentary]: If everyone comes to a knowledge of the truth and repents, would you vote against this and demand that they cease to exist forever? This still leaves room for some individuals to opt out of living

Univocalism:  The posture or attitude of having a single, sharply defined sense of nature.
[Commentary]:

Utilitarianism:  The doctrine that the worth or value of anything is determined solely by its utility; the doctrine that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there is a lot of truth in this posture.

Utopianism:  The ideas, doctrines and aims of an idealistic visionary's schemes for producing perfection in social and political conditions.
[Commentary]: This cannot happen until there is unity in the truth.

[V]

Valentine, (Saint):  3rd century AD, Roman Martyr

Vitalism:  The doctrine that the life in living organisms is caused and sustained by a vital force that is distinct from all physical and chemical forces and that life is, in part, self-determining and self-evolving.
[Commentary]: The site position is that it is hard to argue against this.

Volition:  The faculty to choose belief, to decide to act or think, to will to be, the will to have values and self-commitment to ultimate purpose.
[Commentary]: See Volition Issues

Voluntarism:  Any theory which holds that reality is ultimately of the nature of will or that the will is the primary factor in experience.
[Commentary]: The site position is that there Is a lot of truth in this conceot.

Voodoo:  A primitive and superstitious religion based on belief in sorcery and in the power of tangible charms, fetishes, etc.

[W]

Weber, Max:  1864-1920  AD, German

Weltanschauung:  A personal, comprehensive philosophical integration of the knowledge of the universe, reality and of human life.

Wesley, John:  1703-1791  AD, English  Methodism

Whitehead, A. N.:  1861-1947  AD, English

Wisdom:  That propitious combination of knowledge, proper belief, and valid experience that enables one to follow the best judgment or the soundest course of action.
[Commentary]:

Wittgenstein, Ludwig:

Wycliffe, John:  1320-1384  AD, Eng

[X]

Xavier, Francis:  1506-1552  AD, Spain

[Y]

Yin-Yang:  A system of thinking in terms of contrasting opposites. A Chinese philosophy

[Z]

Zeitgeist:  The spirit or thinking of a civilization during an era or age.

Zenda-Vesta:  The sacred writings of the Zoroastrians.

Zeno:  342-270  BC   Greek  Stoicism.

Zoomorphism:  The attributing of animal forms or characteristics to God.
[Commentary]: The site position is that this is uncalled for except at it applies to being human.

Zoroaster: & 6th century BC  Persia

Zoroastrianism: The religious system of the Persians before their conversion to Islam; its principles include belief in an afterlife and in the continuing struggle of the universal spirit lord of good with the universal spirit lord of evil, with the good ultimately prevailing. Persian writings of it are the Avesta.
[Commentary]:

Zwingli, Ulrich:  Swiss

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