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Physics is unable to stand on its own feet, but needs a
metaphysics on which to support itself, whatever fine
airs it may assume towards the latter.
- Schopenhauer

Metaphysical Certainties
Updated: 06/30/2021

Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together, literally mean "after or behind or among [the study of] the natural". It has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century AD editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics (ta meta ta phusika, 'after the Physics ', another of Aristotle's works).

Please educate me if I am in error, but I am unaware of any previous philosopher that has developed or published such a list. However, many (most?) of these items have been conceived before my time, and thus, even if I came up with these on my own, they are not original with me.

Note: Lest anyone think that undertaking this endeavor is precocious or arrogant, I have this apology already constructed in case I am mistaken in any area or with any item:

"I am mistaken in my statement about __________! Sir ___________________has convinced me to change my thinking. I Thank you Sir ___________________ for engaging in a meaningful way."

Here is a beginning of the list, which is stated in simple--not necessarily elegant--language.

  1. I know I exist, because it would be fundamentally illogical to think I exist when I don't.
  2. Every existent thing when encountered presents unassailable evidence of its existence and properties, because it would be fundamentally illogical to think this to not be true.
  3. I know that I did NOT create myself, not only because I have no consciousness of having done so, there is a plethora of evidence that I did not, there is no evidence that I did, and finally because I can't even imagine, visualize or conceive of doing so.
  4. All reality, both spiritual and physical, is sensed, perceived or apprehended through contrast, change or difference.
  5. There are things that exist independently of me, because they have some properties that differ from mine, I have no consciousness of having created them, but have only discovered them.
  6. Nothingness: By definition and/or being logically "self evident", there can be no such thing as nothing or nothingness, and I cannot conceive such a thing as nothingness. The physical universe can have no pockets or voids of nothingness. "Nothing" and zero are mental constructs only showing the absence of something, and cannot be reified. "No eggs" is not a description of quantity but a description of LACK of quantity.
  7. Infinite: Anything that can exist in quantities that can be counted or measured in units cannot be infinite in quantity or dimension, because I cannot imagine an infinite quantity
  8. Reification Not Allowed: Spiritual (non material) realities, including mental constructs, cannot be legitimately reified into tangible entities, because I cannot imagine doing so.
  9. Size and Dimension: Any physical or material object must have size and dimensions.
  10. Geometrical coordinate systems are just and only mental constructs, and can imply nothing about the size of the universe, because I cannot imagine them doing so.
  11. Since 2- dimensional space or area and 3-dimensional space or volume can be measured, the universe cannot be infinite in space. Space exists in the universe, but the universe does not exist in space.
  12. Reference Frame: The finite universe is its own ultimate, non-relative frame of reference for everything inside.
  13. Sequence: Sequence is an intangible aspect of reality that cannot be altered, because I cannot imagine a reality of actually doing this.
  14. Reality must be composed of a sequence of events, because a single event cannot be recognized without being part of a sequence.
  15. Since "time" is the sequence of events and a quantity of time is the number of events in sequence, time cannot be reversed or altered. Time exists in the universe, but the universe does not exist in time.
  16. No hypothesis or theory of material constructs, events or developments can be legitimate or true if it cannot be imagined and visualized, no matter what the math may say..
  17. Numbers and mathematics are mental constructs that can help quantify or describe aspects of the universe, but certain mathematical constructs such as imaginary numbers or negative imaginary numbers in and of themselves do not imply anything about the tangible universe, because I cannot imagine them doing so.


Helpful Material?

Notes for further consideration:: There are intelligent beings that exist independently of me, and I know this because they have some thinking, knowledge and insight that differ from mine, I have no consciousness of having created them, but have only discovered them.

Leibniz concepts

There are self-evident principles (such as the principle of sufficient reason, the law of contradiction, and the identity of indiscernibles),

Four important implications of Leibniz’s account of substance: 1) distinction between metaphysical truth and phenomenal description; 2) idea of little perceptions (little perceptions accumulate continuously and bypass conscious will); 3) infinitely composite nature of all body; 4) innate ideas (An innate idea is any idea which is intrinsic to the mind rather than arriving in some way from outside it).

Three levels of reality: 1) Metaphysical level, 2) Phenomenal level, 3) Noumenal Level

Principle of Continuity, Principle of sufficient reason,

Entelechy: the becoming actual or achievement of a potential.

Recent attempts to explain how the universe came out of nothing, which rely on questionable notions such as spontaneous fluctuations in a quantum vacuum, the notion of gravity as negative energy, and the inexplicable free gift of the laws of nature waiting in the wings for the moment of creation, reveal conceptual confusion beneath mathematical sophistication. They demonstrate the urgent need for a radical re-examination of the invisible frameworks within which scientific investigations are conducted. We need to step back from the mathematics to see how we got to where we are now. In short, to un-take much that is taken for granted. - Tallis, Raymond, "Philosophy isn't dead yet"

Phenominal Reality: the idea that the world as it appears to us may be (or even is) nothing like the world as it ‘really’ is independent of our experience.

The ‘noumenal world’, ‘noumenal reality’ or the ‘noumenal level of reality’ is the order of reality independent of our experience

Kant argues for a surprising set of claims about space, time, and objects: 1. Space and time are merely the forms of our sensible intuition of objects.

The Four Selves:
1. The High Self (Kane, Aumakua), inspires.
2. The Conscious Self (Lono) imagines.
3. The Subconscious Self (Ku) remembers.
4. The Core Self (Kanaloa) wills.
The Four Levels of Reality 
1. Everything is objective (Scientific reality). 
2. Everything is subjective (Psychic reality). 
3. Everything is symbolic (Shamanic reality). 
4. Everything is holistic (Mystical reality).


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